Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Thai Nguyen University of Technology, Thai Nguyen, Vietnam

Abstract

SKD 11 tool steel is among the most popular metals in mold industries for making different kinds of cold work molds and dies with high accuracy and long service life. The demand for higher quality, lower manufacturing costs, particularly the environmentally friendly characteristics, have provided the stimuli for manufacturers and researchers to find alternative solutions. An excellent media is formed in the cutting zone by using MQL nanofluids in order to enhance the thermal conductivity and tribological characteristics; therefore, improving the machining performance. The formation of the lubricating film as well as the rolling action of nanoparticles in contact zones has gained much attention in the machining field. In this research work, the application of MQL Al2O3 nanofluids with vegetable oils and emulsion 5% is developed for slotting end milling of SKD 11 steel using normal HSS tool. The cutting forces, tool wear, tool life, and surface roughness are investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of MQL nanofluid on cutting performance. The experimental results reveal that the cutting forces and cutting temperature decrease and the surface quality and tool life enhance. Furthermore, the improvement of the thermal conductivity of nanofluids is proven when compared to pure fluids. Due to the rise of viscosity and thermal conductivity, the soybean oil-based nanofluid, which is almost inherently nontoxic, gives superior lubricating and cooling properties suitable for MQL application compared to emulsion-based nanofluids. The novel environmental friendly technology definitely brings out many technological and economic benefits in machining practice. 

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Main Subjects

[1] S. Xavierarockiaraj, P. Kuppan, “Investigation of Cutting Forces, Surface Roughness and Tool Wear during Laser Assisted Machining of SKD11Tool Steel”, Procedia Engineering, Vol. 97, pp. 1657-1666, (2014).

 

[2] S. Xavierarockiaraj, P. Kuppan, “Influence of Process Parameters on Surface Temperature during Laser Assisted Preheating of SKD11 Steel based on Response Surface Methodology”, Materials Today: Proceedings, Vol. 5, No. 5, Part 2, pp. 13451-13458, (2018).

 

[3] M. C. Kang, K. H. Kim, S. H. Shin, S. H. Jang, J. H. Park, C. Kim, “Effect of the minimum quantity lubrication in high-speed end-milling of AISI D2 cold-worked die steel (62 HRC) by coated carbide tools”, Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 202, No. 22, pp. 5621-5624, (2008).

 

[4] C. Wang, F. Ding, D. Tang, L. Zheng, Y. Xie, “Modeling and simulation of the high-speed milling of hardened steel SKD11 (62 HRC) based on SHPB technology”, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 108, pp. 13-26, (2016).

 

[5] J. L. Li, L. L. Jing, M. Chen, “An FEM study on residual stresses induced by high-speed end-milling of hardened steel SKD11”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 209, No. 9, pp. 4515-4520, (2009).

 

[6] J. Paulo Davim,  Machining of hard materials, 1st ed., Springer-Verlag London Limited, New York, pp. 33-43, (2011).

 

[7] E.M. Trent and P.K. Wrigh, Metal Cutting, 4th ed., Butterworth Heinemann Publications, (2000).

 

[8] Sun, S., M. Brandt, and M. S. Dargusch, “Thermally enhanced machining of hard-to-machine materials-a review”, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 50, No. 8, pp. 663-680, (2010).

 

[9]  A.K.M. N. Amin et al., "Modeling & Optimization of Surface Roughness & Vibration Amplitude in Heat Assisted End Milling of SKD 11 Tool Steel Using Ball Nose Tool", Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 538-541, pp. 799-803, (2012).

 

[10] Feng Gong, Jun Zhao, Yiwei Jiang, Haiwang Tao, Zuoli Li, Jian Zang, “Fatigue failure of coated carbide tool and its influence on cutting performance in face milling SKD11 hardened steel”, Int. Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials,  Vol. 64, pp. 27 –34, (2017).

 

[11] C.Y.Wang, Y.X.Xie, Z.Qin, H.S.Lin, Y.H.Yuan, Q.M.Wang, “Wear and breakage of TiAlN- and TiSiN-coated carbide tools during high-speed milling of hardened steel”, Wear, Vols. 336–337, pp. 29-42, (2015).

 

[12]             C. Wang, F. Ding, D. Tang, L. Zheng, S. Li, Y. Xie, “Modeling and simulation of the high-speed milling of hardened steel SKD11 (62 HRC) based on SHPB technology”, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol. 108, pp. 13–26, (2016).

 

[13] Duc Tran Minh, Long Tran The, Ngoc Tran Bao, “Performance of Al2O3 nanofluids in minimum quantity lubrication in hard milling of 60Si2Mn steel using cemented carbide tools”, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, Vol.  9, No. 7, pp. 1-9, (2017).

 

[14]  Tran Minh Duc and Tran The Long, “Investigation of MQL-Employed Hard-Milling Process of S60C Steel Using Coated-Cemented Carbide Tools”, Journal of Mechanics Engineering and Automation, Vol.  6, pp. 128-132, (2016).

 

 [15]  Tran Minh Duc, Tran The Long, Pham Quang Dong, Tran Bao Ngoc, “Applied Research of Nanofluids in MQL to Improve Hard Milling Performance of 60Si2Mn Steel Using Carbide Tools”, American Journal of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 5, pp. 228-233, (2017).

 

[16]  P. K. Wright and E. M. Trent, “Metallurgical appraisal of wear mechanisms and processes on high speed steel cutting tools”, Metals Technol., Vol. 1, pp. 13-23, (1974).

 

[17] D.A Stephenson, J.S Agapiou, Metal Cutting Theory and Practice, 3rd ed., CRC Press, Florida, pp. 539-543, (2016).

 

[18]  Tran Minh Duc, Pham Quang Dong, “Influence of coolant fluid and method on tool wear, tool life and the surface roughness in slot machining using end mills”, Journal of Science & Technology Technical Universities, Vol. 65, pp. 55 – 58, (2008).

 

[19] D. Fratila, “Evaluation of near-dry machining effects on gear milling process efficiency”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 17, pp. 839-845, (2009).

 

[20] Le Thai Son, Tran Minh Duc, Nguyen Dang Binh, Nguyen Van Cuong, “An Investigation on Effect of Characteristics of the Made in Vietnam Peanut oil MQL on Tool life in Hard turning 9CrSi steel”, Machining and Machinability of Materials, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 428-438, (2013).

 

 [21] Duong Xuan Truong and Tran Minh Duc, “Effect of CuttingCondition on Tool Wear and Surface Roughness during Machining of Inconel 718”, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology, Vol. 4, pp. 108-112, (2013).

 

[22] Tran The Long, Tran Minh Duc, “Micro/Nanofluids in Sustainable Machining”, Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, Ed. Mohsen Sheikholeslami Kandelousi, Intech Open, United Kingdom, pp. 162-199, (2018).

 

[23] Anuj Kumar Sharma, Arun Kumar Tiwari, Amit Rai Dixit, “Effects of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) in machining processes using conventional and nanofluid based cutting fluids: a review”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 127, pp. 1–18, (2016).

 

[24] N. A.C. Sidik, S. Samion, J. Ghaderian, M. N. A. W. M. Yazid, “Recent progress on the application of nanofluids in minimum quantity lubrication machining: A review”, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol.  108, pp. 79–89, (2017).

 

[25] A. Uysala, F. Demirena, E. Altana, “Applying Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) Method on Milling of Martensitic Stainless Steel by Using Nano MoS2 Reinforced Vegetable Cutting Fluid”, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 195, pp. 2742 – 2747, (2015).

 

[26] A. Garg, S. Sarma, B.N. Panda, J. Zhang, L. Gao, “Study of effect of nanofluid concentration on response characteristics of machining process for cleaner production”, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 135, pp. 476-489, (2016).

 

 [27] C. Mao, J. Zhang, Y. Huang, H. Zou, X. Huang and Z. Zhou, “Investigation on the Effect of Nanofluid Parameters on MQL Grinding”, Materials and Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 28, pp. 436-442, (2013).

 

 [28] W.Li, Y.B.Guo, M.E.Barkey, J.B.Jordon, “Effect Tool Wear During End Milling on the Surface Integrity and Fatigue Life of Inconel 718”, Procedia CIRP, Vol. 14, pp. 546-551, (2014).

 

[29] ISO 8688-2:1989 (en), “Tool life testing in milling — Part 2: End milling”, pp. 9-14, (1989).

 

[30]  M. K. A. Ali, H. Xianjun, L. Mai, C. Qingping, R. F. Turkson, C. Bicheng, “Improving the tribological characteristics of piston ring assembly in automotive engines using Al2O3 and TiO2 nanomaterials as nanolubricant additives”, Tribology International, Vol. 103, pp. 540–554, (2016).

 

 

CAPTCHA Image