Document Type: Research Paper


1 mechanical engineering Faculty of engineering and technology Annamalai University Chidambaram-608002 India

2 Proofessor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, Puducherry 605 014 India



Heat dissipation in electronic circuits is important to maintain their reliability and functionality. In this work micro-channel based bio-inspired flow field models are proposed and numerically analyzed. The proposed flow fields have single to four, inlet-outlet pairs. COMSOL is used to do the numerical analysis. Conjugate heat transfer analysis is done on the quarter sectional models, utilizing bi-axial symmetry of the flow fields to reduce computational cost. Constant heat flux is applied to the base of the proposed heat sinks. The results show that, the thermal and hydraulic resistances of the proposed models are lower than traditional micro-channel arrays. The four inlet-outlet pairs, model shows a thermal resistance of 0.121 to 0.158 C/W at constant Re inlet condition, achieved with a pumping power of 0.102-0.126W. Two and four, inlet-outlet pair models with aspect ratio 8.6 have a thermal resistance of 0.069 and 0.067 C/W, for pumping powers 2.078 and 4.365W respectively. The pressure drop of the proposed models is lower than conventional microchannel arrays.

Graphical Abstract


Main Subjects

[1]  S. Lu and K. Vafai, “A comparative analysis of innovative microchannel heat sinks for electronic cooling”, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf, Vol.76, No. 8, pp. 271–284, (2016). 

[2]  A. C. Kheirabadi and D. Groulx, “Cooling of server electronics: A design review of existing technology”, Appl. Therm. Eng, Vol. 105, No. 7, pp. 622–638, (2016). 

[3]  P. Bhattacharya, A. N. Samanta, and S. Chakraborty, “Numerical study of conjugate heat transfer in rectangular microchannel heat sink with Al2O3/H2O nanofluid”, Heat Mass Transf, Vol. 45, No. 10, pp. 1323–1333, (2009).

[4]  W. Duangthongsuk and S. Wongwises, “A comparison of the thermal and hydraulic performances between miniature pin fin heat sink and microchannel heat sink with zigzag flow channel together with using nanofluids”, HeatMass Transf, Vol. 54, No. 5, pp. 3265–3274, (2018).

[5]  M. Dehghan, M. Daneshipour, M.S. Valipour, R. Rafee, S. Saedodin, “Enhancing heat transfer in microchannel heat sinks using converging flow passages”, Energy Convers. Manag, Vol. 92, No. 3, pp. 244–250, (2015). 

[6]  W. Qu and I. Mudawar, “Experimental and numerical study of pressure drop and heat transfer in a single-phase micro-channel heat sink”, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., Vol. 45, No. 12, pp. 2549–2565, (2002).

[7]  Kandassamy, K, and B Prabu, “Numerical Investigation of Bio-Inspired Pin Fin Heat Sink Models for Square Shaped Electronic Circuits”, J. App. Sci. and Eng., Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 119–33, (2019). 

[8]  M. Khoshvaght-Aliabadi and F. Nozan, “Water cooled corrugated minichannel heat sink for electronic devices: Effect of corrugation shape”, Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transf, Vol. 76, No. 8, pp. 188–196, (2016). 

[9]  I. Ali, N. Azwadi, C. Sidik, and N. Kamaruzaman, “International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer Hydrothermal performance of microchannel heat sink: The effect of channel design”, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf, Vol. 107, No. 4, pp. 21–44, (2017). 

[10] M. Farzaneh, M. R. Salimpour, and M. R. Tavakoli, “Design of bifurcating microchannels with/ without loops for cooling of square-shaped electronic components”, Appl. Therm. Eng, Vol. 108, No. 9, pp. 581–595, (2016). 

[11] D. Heymann, D. Pence, and V. Narayanan, “Optimization of fractal-like branching microchannel heat sinks for single-phase flows”, Int. J. Therm. Sci, Vol. 49, No. 8, pp. 1383–1393, (2010). 

[12] G. Xie, F. Zhang, B. Sundén, and W. Zhang, “Constructal design and thermal analysis of microchannel heat sinks with multistage bifurcations in single-phase liquid flow”, Appl. Therm. Eng, Vol. 62, No. 2, pp. 791–802, (2014). 

[13] C. A. Rubio-jimenez, A. Hernandez-guerrero, J. G. Cervantes, D. Lorenzini-gutierrez, and C. U. Gonzalez-valle, “CFD study of constructal microchannel networks for liquid-cooling of electronic devices”, Appl. Therm. Eng, Vol. 95, pp. 374–381, (2016). 

[14] S. G. Kandlikar, “High flux heat removal with microchannels - A roadmap of challenges and opportunities”, Heat Transf. Eng., Vol. 26, No. 8, pp. 5–14, (2005). 

[15] T. Chen, Y. Xiao, and T. Chen, “The impact on PEMFC of bionic flow field with a different branch”, Energy Procedia, Vol. 28, pp. 134–139, (2012). 

[16] J. Currie, “Biomimetic design applied to the redesign of a PEM fuel cell”, M.A.Sc thesis, University of Toronto, Canada, (2010). 

[18] A. P. Manso, F. F. Marzo, J. Barranco, X. Garikano, and M. Garmendia Mujika, “Influence of geometric parameters of the flow fields on the performance of a PEM fuel cell. A review”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 37, No.20, pp. 15256–15287, (2012). 

[19] D. Ouellette, A. Ozden, M. Ercelik, C. O. Colpan, H. Ganjehsarabi, X. Li, and F. Hamdullahpur, “Assessment of different bio-inspired flow fields for direct methanol fuel cells through 3D modeling and experimental studies”, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 1152–1170, (2018). 

[20] A. Arvay, J. French, J. Wang, X. Peng, and A. M. Kannan, “Modeling and Simulation of Biologically Inspired Flow Field Designs for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells”, Open Electrochem. J., Vol. 6, pp. 1–9, (2015). 

[21] P. Trogadas, J. I. S. Cho, T. P. Neville, J. Marquis, B. Wu, D. J. L. Brett, and M. O. Coppens, “A lung-inspired approach to scalable and robust fuel cell design”, Energy Environ. Sci., Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 136–143, (2018). 

[22] F. Arbabi, Numerical Modeling of an Innovative Bipolar Plate Design Based on the Leaf Venation Patterns for PEM Fuel Cells, Int. J. Eng. Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 177–186, (2012). 

[23] Y. Li, F. Zhang, B. Sunden, and G. Xie, “Laminar thermal performance of microchannel heat sinks with constructal vertical Y-shaped bifurcation plates”, Appl. Therm. Eng., Vol. 73, No. 1, pp. 185–195, (2014).

[24] B. Camburn, K. Otto, D. Jensen, R. Crawford, and K. Wood, “Designing biologically inspired leaf structures: computational geometric transport analysis of volume-to-point flow channels”, Eng. Comput., Vol. 31, No. 2, pp.  361–374, (2015).

[25] F. Cano-banda, C. U. Gonzalez-valle, S. Tarazona-cardenas, and A. Hernandez-guerrero, “Effect of different geometry flow pattern on heat sink performance”, 12th Int. Con. Heat Tran., Fluid Mech. and Therm., Spain, pp. 419–424, (2016).

[26] X. Q. Wang, A. S. Mujumdar, and C. Yap, “Effect of bifurcation angle in tree-shaped microchannel networks”, J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 102, No. 7, (2007). 

[27] H. Wang, Z. Chen, and J. Gao, “Influence of Geometric Parameters on Flow and Heat Transfer Performance of Micro-Channel Heat Sinks”, Appl. Therm. Eng., Vol. 107, pp. 870–879, (2016). 

[28] C. Y. Zhao and T. J. Lu, “Analysis of microchannel heat sinks for electronics cooling”, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., Vol. 45, No. 24, pp. 4857–4869, (2002).

[29] D. Lorenzini-gutierrez, “Variable Fin Density Flow Channels for Effective Cooling and Mitigation of Temperature Nonuniformity in Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits”, J. of Electronic Packaging, Vol. 136, No. 2, pp. 1–11, (2014). 

[30] D. B. Tuckerman and R. F. W. Pease, “High-Performance Heat Sinking for VLSI”, IEEE Electron Device Lett., Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 126–129, (1981). 

[31] COMSOL, “Introduction to COMSOL Multiphysics 5.3”, Manual, (2014). 

[32] D.D. Ma, G.D. Xia, J. Wang, Y.C. Yang, Y.T. Jia, L.X. Zong, “An experimental study on hydrothermal performance of microchannel heat sinks with 4-ports and offset zigzag channels”, Energy Convers. Manag. Vol.152 pp.157–165, (2017). 

[33] H. Shen, C.C. Wang, G. Xie, “A parametric study on thermal performance of microchannel heat sinks with internally vertical bifurcations in laminar liquid flow”, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf., Vol. 117, pp. 487–497, (2018). 

[34] V. S. Duryodhan, S. G. Singh, and A. Agrawal, “Heat rate distribution in converging and diverging microchannel in presence of conjugate effect”, Int. J. Heat Mass Transf, Vol. 104, pp. 1022–1033, (2017).

[35]      C. Chen, “Forced convection heat transfer in microchannel heat sinks”,