Journal of Computational & Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering (JCARME)Journal of Computational & Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering (JCARME)
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/
Sat, 21 Sep 2019 00:37:54 +0100FeedCreatorJournal of Computational & Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering (JCARME)
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/
Feed provided by Journal of Computational & Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering (JCARME). Click to visit.An advection-diffusion multi-layer porous model for stent drug delivery in coronary arteries
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_874_208.html
Arterial drug concentration distribution determines local toxicity. The safety issues dealt with Drug-Eluting Stents (DESs) reveal the needs for investigation about the effective factors contributing to fluctuations in arterial drug uptake. The current study focused on the importance of hypertension as an important and controversial risk factor among researchers on the efficacy of Heparin-Eluting Stents (HES). For this purpose, the effect of blood pressure is systematically investigated in certain cardiac cycle modes. A comprehensive study is conducted on two classes, pulsatile (time-dependent), to have a more realistic simulation, and non-pulsatile (time-independent) blood flow, each one in four modes. The governing equations applied to drug release dynamics are obtained based on porous media theory. The equations are solved numerically using Finite Volume Method (FVM). Results reveal that there is a significant difference when the plasma flow considered and when it is neglected (regardless of time dependency). Moreover, the concentration level is more decreased in pulsatile blood flow rather than the non-pulsatile blood flow, although the penetration depth for pressure and concentration are nearly 20% and 5% of the wall thickness, respectively. In other words, the mass experienced by the arterial wall is lower in pulsatile blood flow in comparison to non-pulsatile blood flow. As a consequence, the risk of toxicity is declined as the blood pressure increases. Also, it can be seen that the polymer is diffusion-dominated so that no significant changes in the release characteristics are observed in the presence of the plasma filtration.Sat, 31 Aug 2019 19:30:00 +0100Experimental Investigation of EDM Process Parameters by Using Pongamia Pinnata Oil blends as ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1136_0.html
Electro Discharge Machining (EDM) is incredibly recognizable machining for ticklishness profiles in "difficult to machine" materials. In EDM, the material ejection of the cathode is cultivated through exact controlled electric pulse (the flash), which changes the metals of two terminals into dissolve and vaporize, and because of the breakdown of the dielectric medium. The most commonly used dielectric media are kerosene, paraffin, glycerin, transformer oil, EDM oil .all these are derived from petroleum. these dielectric media undergo pyrolysis and carbon soot formation is deposited on work electrode, and sometimes carbon precipitates into work. To overcome these effects vegetable oils are tried as alternate dielectric media. Pongamia Pinnetta is abundantly available in most of the countries, it's cheaper and non-edible. Pongamia Pinnata (PP) oil is extracting from plant seeds, and that is blended with EDM oil and several experimentations are done to find the suitability. Operational variables with respect to input and output parameters are identified. some of these are best EWR, MRR, TWR, and SR with applied current (I), pulse on time (Ton), and pulse off time (Toff) are which are picked as the input process factors, because for industrial application many machinists are choosing these three are the input parameters and other is constant and pick under specific requirements only. After successful completion of this experimentations, Pongamia Pinnata oil blends are fit for the industrial application using TECHNIQUE OF ORDER PREFERANCING WITH SIMILAR TO IDEAL SOLUTION [TOPSIS], It is observed that no carbon soot formation in the work component with PP oil as the dielectric.Tue, 27 Aug 2019 19:30:00 +0100Design and manufacture a novel tool in the incremental sheet metal forming process and its ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1031_208.html
One of the methods for making prototypes is incremental forming process. In this method, the forming tool, performs a pre-programmed movement by the CNC machine and runs the desired path. This modernization process is used in the automotive, aerospace, military, medical and other industries. One of the most influential parameters in this process is forming tool. This parameter is effective in forming forces, surface roughness, sheet formability and thickness distribution. In this study, the forming tool was investigated and rotating geometry tool was compared with a rigid tool. Also, the effects of step down, feed rate and spindle speed were investigated on the forming force, surface roughness and thickness distribution by comparing mentioned forming tools. The results indicate that the forming forces, sheet surface quality and thickness changes increase with increasing step down and feed rate. Using the rotary tools improves the forming forces, surface roughness and thickness distribution rather than the non-rotating tool.Sat, 31 Aug 2019 19:30:00 +0100Fracture analysis of pre-cracked and notched thin plates using peridynamic theory
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1135_0.html
In this paper, the crack propagation and branching in the pre-cracked and notched samples have been modeled using nonlocal peridynamic theory. The bond-based peridynamic model has been numerically implemented which make it possible to simulate the various features of dynamic brittle fracture such as crack propagation, asymmetries of crack paths and successive branching. The fracture simulation of thin plates made of a brittle material with different crack and notch patterns has been considered. The molecular dynamics open-source free LAMMPS code has been updated to implement the peridynamic theory based modeling tool for two-dimensional numerical analysis. The simulations show that, the simulations time significantly decreases which is the core and distracting deficiency of the peridynamic method. Moreover, the simulated results demonstrate the capability of peridynamic theory to precisely predict the crack propagation paths as well as crack branching during dynamic fracture process. The good agreement between simulation and experiments is achieved.Tue, 27 Aug 2019 19:30:00 +0100Numerical investigation on the effects of six control rods arranged in equilateral triangular ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1035_208.html
The present work deals with heat transfer characteristics as well as fluid flow patterns in laminar flow regime for a circular cylinder with six control rods arranged in equilateral triangular geometries. The computations have been carried out by a finite volume approach using the overset grid method. The unsteady flow at Re= 200 and Pr= 0.7 and 7.0 was examined. The effect of the control rods on suppression of the fluid forces applied on a main cylinder has been investigated by numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. Based on the results obtained, the arrangement employed in this study indicated the significant performance in reducing the oscillatory force coefficients of the primary cylinder. Except for some gap ratios, it is indicated that both drag and lift coefﬁcients are much lower than that for a single cylinder. Moreover, forced convection heat transfer was calculated using local and mean Nusselt numbers at the surface of the cylinders. The instantaneous streamlines, the vortices and isothermal contours were presented in order to analyze the temperature field and flow field around the cylinders.Sat, 31 Aug 2019 19:30:00 +0100Thermomechanical behaviour of Functionally Graded Plates with HSDT
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1121_0.html
This paper presents closed-form formulations of higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT) to analyse the functionally graded plates (FGPs) acted upon a thermo-mechanical load for simply supported (SS) conditions. This theory assumes nullity conditions for transverse stress on bottom and top face of the FGPs. Moreover, considers the influence of both stresses and strains in the axial and transversal direction. In these improvements an accurate parabolic variation is assumed in the thickness direction for transverse shear strains. Therefore, this theory omits the use of correction factor for accurately estimating the shear stress. The physical properties of the FGPs are considered to change along the thickness using a power law. The equilibrium relations and constriants on all edges are attained by considering the virtual work. Numerical evaluations are attained based on Navier’s approach. The exactness and consistency of the developed theory are ascertained with numerical results for deflections and stresses of SS FGPs and it is deemed that numerical solutions for thermo-mechanical load will utilize as a reference in the future.Sat, 24 Aug 2019 19:30:00 +0100A method for detecting bubbles in two-phase gas-liquid flow
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_963_208.html
Detecting bubble in two-phase flow has been a basic issue in two-phase flow systems. A new method for measuring the frequency of bubble formation is presented in this paper. For this purpose, an electronic device was designed and constructed which works based on a change in intensity of laser beam. For this purpose, continues light beam is embedded just above the needle, which is received by a phototransistor. When bubbles go through this light beam, make a deviation on that and change the intensity of light. So, the electrical resistance between two bases of phototransistor changes and this variation sensed by an electronic board. According to the number of interruption and duration time, the frequency of bubble formation can be calculated. Liquid and gas phases of present work are water and air respectively. Tests are performed in constant liquid height (60 mm above the needle), constant needle diameter (1.6 mm), and gas flow rates between 50 to 1200 ml/hr. Also, three other methods utilized for measuring bubble frequency: image processing (IP), numerical modeling, and theoretical model. Results show that with increasing flow rate of the gas phase frequency of formation increases approximately in a linear manner. Validation of methods with IP method shows that the new device has very good accuracy for measuring bubble formation frequency. So because of the simplicity of using and low cost, it can be a superseded method of image processing.Sat, 31 Aug 2019 19:30:00 +0100ANALYTICAL AND COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATIONS ON COUNTER FLOW HEAT EXCHANGER USING COMPUTATIONAL ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1120_0.html
This paper presents a comprehensive and exclusive thermodynamic analysis of counter flow heat exchanger under various operating and geometrical conditions. Analysis system (ANSYS) workbench 14.0 has been used for computational analysis and comparison with previous literature has been carried out in view of variable temperature and mass flow rate of hot and cold fluids. An analytical and statistical method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is used for simulation and validation of the heat exchanger under steady and dynamic operating conditions. A 3-D model of a heat exchanger having 1000 mm and 1200 mm outside and inside tube lengths with diameter 12.7 mm is designed in ANSYS environment using Renormalization Group (RNG) k-ε approach in order to get the better effectiveness of the system. The variable effects of the steady-state temperature and mass flow rate are investigated. The influence of turbulence over the temperature and pressure profiles is also studied. Moreover, the analytical outcome of the present investigations is compared with that of previous existing literature and found to be in agreement with the previous studies. The proposed analysis presents an in-depth perspective and simulation of temperature gradient profile through the length of heat exchanger. The proposed modified design of heat exchanger along with changing flow direction yields much better results with small computational error 0.66% to 1.004% and 0.83% to 1.05% with respect to change in temperature and mass flow rate respectively.Sat, 24 Aug 2019 19:30:00 +0100Crashworthiness design of multi-cell tapered tubes using response surface methodology
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_908_208.html
In this article, crashworthiness performance and crushing behavior of tapered structures with four internal reinforcing plates under axial and oblique dynamic loadings have been investigated. These structures have a tapered form with five cross sections of square, hexagonal, octagonal, decagon and circular shape. In the first step, finite element simulations performed in LS-DYNA were validated by comparing with experimental data. The code generated in LS-DYNA was then used to investigate energy absorption behavior of the tapered structures. Response surface methodology and historical data design technique were employed to optimize the cross section perimeter (tapered angle) of the tapered structures by considering two conflicting crashworthiness criteria including EA (energy absorption) and PCF (peak crushing force). The optimization results showed that the optimal tapered angle enhanced by increasing the number of cross section sides (or number of corners). Then, the optimized tapered structures with different cross-sections were compared with each other using a ranking method called TOPSIS to introduce the most efficient energy absorber. The decagonal structure was finally found to be the best energy absorber.Sat, 31 Aug 2019 19:30:00 +0100Design and Construction of Fruit Solar Drier for Rural Settlements
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1119_0.html
This research focus on the need for preserving fruits in rural areas to prevent waste. The solar drier is made of vital chambers i.e. the concentrator chamber (that harvest the solar irradiance), the transport pipe (that transport the heat generated by convection) and hanger chamber (where the fruits are placed). The temperature within the concentrator chamber and hanger chamber was monitored. The design allowed heat transfer by convection from the collector to the chamber at an efficiency of 92 %. The design allowed the temperature build up in the solar collector to be transported faster through hanger chamber with the help of incorporated detachable low power dc fan. This arrangement, makes the dryer to either operate in the natural convection dryer mode (without the fan) or as a forced convection dryer (with the fan attached). It is observed that the forced convection provided higher air in-flow and hence greater drying capability. However, regions with moderate precipitation may have challenges of delayed fruit drying and growth of microorganism over the surfaces of the dried fruit.Sat, 24 Aug 2019 19:30:00 +0100Influence of insertion of holes in the middle of obstacles on the flow around a surface-mounted cube
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1032_208.html
The aim of our study is to analyze the impact of insertion holes in the middle of obstacles on the flow around a surface-mounted cube, In order to do this; we studied four configurations of obstacles in a channel with a Reynods number based on obstacle height ReH = 40000. The hexahedral structured meshes were used to solve the fluid dynamics equations .The finite volume method are employed to solve the governing equations using the ANSYS CFX code and the turbulence model k-ω SST. The streamwise velocity profiles, the Time-averaged streamlines, the turbulence kinetic energy and the drag coefficient are presented. The results showed the appearance of a second vortex behind obstacles with hole from diameter D/H=0.2. The turbulence kinetic energy was greater on top of the obstacle, it was more intense for the obstacle without hole, this intensity decreased as the hole diameter increased. The drag coefficient was improved only for the case D/H=0.32Sat, 31 Aug 2019 19:30:00 +0100Entropy generation analysis of MHD forced convective flow through a horizontal porous channel
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1118_0.html
Entropy generation due to viscous incompressible MHD forced convective dissipative fluid flow through a horizontal channel of finite depth in the existence of an inclined magnetic field and heat source effect has been examined. The governing non-linear partial differential equations for momentum, energy and entropy generation are derived and solved by using the analytical method. In addition; the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are calculated numerically and their values are presented through the tables for the upper and the bottom wall of the channel. It was concluded that; total entropy generation rate and Bejan number are reduced due to rise in the inclination angle of the magnetic field. Also, an increment in the heat source prop ups the fluid temperature and total entropy generation rate. This study will help to reduce the energy loss due to reversible process and heat dissipation. The results are very useful for chemical and metallurgy industries.Sat, 24 Aug 2019 19:30:00 +0100MHD thermal radiation and chemical reaction effects with peristaltic transport of the ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_952_208.html
In this paper, we analyze the thermal radiation and chemical reaction impacts on MHD peristaltic motion of the Eyring-Powell fluid through a porous medium in a channel with compliant walls under slip conditions for velocity, temperature, and concentration. Assumptions of a long wave length and low Reynolds number are considered. The modeled equations are computed by using the perturbation method. The resulting non-linear system is solved for the stream function, velocity, temperature, concentration, skin-friction coefficient, heat transfer coefficient and mass transfer coefficient. The flow quantities are examined for various parameters. Temperature depresses with an enhancee in the radiation parameter, while the opposite effect is observed for the concentration. The fluid concentration enhances and depresses with generative and destructive chemical reaction respectively. The trapped bolus whose size diminishes as the Powel-Eyring parameter increases while it enhances as another Powell fluid parameter increases. The trapped bolus whose size rises when Darcy number enhances.Sat, 31 Aug 2019 19:30:00 +0100MHD CASSON FLUID FLOW THROUGH A VERTICAL PLATE
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1101_0.html
In this study, effects of numerous physical quantities like dissipation, thermal radiation, and induced magnetic field on magnetohydrodynamic Casson fluid flow through a vertical plate is addressed. The non-dimensional multivariable governing equations are solved numerically by by means of Runge- Kutta method along with shooting technique. The behavior of velocity, temperature and induced magnetic fields for different physical aspects is discussed through graphical illustrations. The influence of physical constants like Casson fluid (β), Magnetic parameter Μ, Soret number Sc, Prandtl number Pr, Magnetic Prandtl number etc., are analyzed on induced magnetic field, temperature and velocity. Interesting observation of this study is that, the effect of velocity distribution obeys the physical nature of well known Newtonian and all other Non-Newtonian fluids.The key observation are The Casson fluid velocity decreases with an rise of , , , and . Temperature distribution decrease with an increases of the values of and . The profile H is improved with decreasing values of magnetic parameter M.Mon, 08 Jul 2019 19:30:00 +0100Experimental study and application of computational fluid dynamics on the prediction of air ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1015_208.html
The shape of the air flow in the interior is heavily influenced by the air distribution system and the way air enters and exits. By numerically simulating flow by computational fluid dynamics, one can determine the flow pattern and temperature distribution and, with the help of the results, provide an optimal design of the air conditioning system. In this study, a chamber was first constructed and the temperature distribution inside it was measured. There was a fan installed at the back of the chamber for drainage. At the chamber entrance, three inlet for entering the flow were considered. The air from the middle inlet was heated by a heater. To prevent heat loss, the body of the enclosure was insulated. Several temperature sensors were installed at certain positions of the chamber for temperature measurement. Using Fluent software, the model of a full-sized chamber was created. Meshing is a hybrid and was used as a boundary layer Mesh. The inlet and outlet temperature of the chamber and the air output rates as boundary conditions were used in the simulation. Numerical analysis for K-ε and K-ω turbulence models was performed and different wall conditions were investigated. The numerical simulation results were in good agreement with the measurement results. Using the K-ε turbulence model with a scalable wall function had a better accuracy than other models. Changes in velocity and temperature were presented in graphs and contours at different positions of the compartment.Sat, 31 Aug 2019 19:30:00 +0100Design and Fabrication of an Effective Micromixer through Passive Method
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1100_0.html
Micromixer is a significant component of microfluidics particularly in lab-on-chip applications so that there has been a growing need for design and fabrication of micromixers with shorter length and higher efficiency. Despite most of passive micromixers that suffer from long mixing path and complicated geometry to increase the efficiency, our novel design suggests a highly efficient micromixer while taking the advantage of having short length. The novelty of our work stems from utilizing all three mixing techniques of injection, recombination, and zigzag mixing resulting in benefits such as multi-flow lamination and flow resistance reduction in micro scale. Moreover, the contraction and expansion of the microchannel width improves mixing. The present work deals with parametric study, numerical simulation, as well as experimental tests and characterization of small planar passive micromixer. The high mixing efficiency yield of 98.02 was obtained with the length of only 1857.8 microns which shows good agreement in comparison with numerical simulation.Mon, 08 Jul 2019 19:30:00 +0100Combined effect of hall current and chemical reaction on MHD flow through porous medium with ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1026_208.html
Unsteady flow with magneto-hydrodynamics and heat generation through porous medium past an impulsively started vertical plate with constant wall temperature and mass diffusion is considered here. The effect studied is a combination of Hall current and chemical reaction. The motivation behind this study is the applications of such kind of problems in industry. In many industrial applications electrically conducting fluid is subjected to magnetic field. The fluid is passed through porous medium. The flow may be on a plate. There may be substance on the plate which may cause chemical reaction. The solution of flow model studied here is obtained by using Laplace transform method. The respective profiles have been drawn for velocity. The numerical data have been obtained using latest software techniques available. The profiles have been analyzed and discussed. The values of Nusselt number, Sherwood number, and drag on plate have been tabulated for analysis. The findings have been summarized in conclusion section.Sat, 31 Aug 2019 19:30:00 +0100Effect of fuel injection pressure of microalgae spirulina biodiesel blends on engine characteristics
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1082_0.html
The unvarying condition diesel engines used for commercial applications, transportation and industries also lead to the crisis of petroleum fuel diminution and ecological squalor caused by due to exhaust gases. Therefore, in this paper optimize the use of MSB in naturally aspirated, direct injection diesel engines, parameters of pure diesel (D100), 80% diesel + 20% microalgae spirulina (B20), 60% diesel + 40% microalgae spirulina (B40) and pure microalgae spirulina biodiesel (B100) were investigated at various fuel injection pressures (FIP) of 18 to 26 MPa and stationary injection timings (23.5° b TDC). The result shows that optimum effect can be obtained in 22 MPa FIP, with B20 bio-diesel without compromising the performance against diesel. B20 blend presented lesser NOX and smoke emissions by 13.7% and 22.2% respectively with no significant change in engine performance when compared to diesel at full load operating condition. The simulation and experiment results are verified at the same operating conditions.Tue, 18 Jun 2019 19:30:00 +0100Entropy generation analysis of non-newtonian fluid in rotational flow
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_924_208.html
The entropy generation analysis of non-Newtonian fluid in rotational flow between two concentric cylinders is examined when the outer cylinder is fixed and the inner cylinder is revolved with a constant angular speed. The viscosity of non-Newtonian fluid is considered at the same time interdependent on temperature and shear rate. The Nahme law and Carreau equation are used to modeling dependence of viscosity on temperature and shear rate, respectively. The viscous dissipation term is adding elaboration to the formerly highly associate set of governing motion and energy equations. The perturbation method has been applied for the highly nonlinear governing equations of base flow and found an approximate solution for narrowed gap limit. The effect of characteristic parameter such as Brinkman number and Deborah number on the entropy generation analysis is investigated. The overall entropy generation number decays in the radial direction from rotating inner cylinder to stationary outer cylinder. The results show that overall rate of entropy generation enhances within flow domain as increasing in Brinkman number. It, however, declines with enhancing Deborah number. The reason for this is very clear, the pseudo plastic fluid between concentric cylinders is heated as Brinkman number increases due to frictional dissipation and it is cooled as Deborah number increases which is due to the elasticity behavior of the fluid. Therefore, to minimize entropy need to be controlled Brinkman number and Deborah number.Sat, 31 Aug 2019 19:30:00 +0100Characteristics of fish oil biodiesel with the impact of diesel fuel addition on a CI engine
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1072_0.html
The present study focuses on the optimization in the use of non-petroleum fuel derived from waste fish oil fuels, as a replacement for petroleum diesel fuel for compression ignition engine. The study comprises of comparison between results of fish oil biodiesel-diesel blends on a compression ignition engine. Fuel properties such as viscosity, density, heat value of fuel, cetane number and a flash point of fish oil biodiesel and its blends with diesel were studied. The fish oil biodiesel (60, 40, 20, and 0%) – diesel (40, 60, 80 and 100%) are blended at volume basis. The results shows reduction in thermal efficiency, temperature, particulate matter and nitrogen oxides emission; while showing an increase in higher specific fuel consumption, ignition delay, carbon dioxide and smoke emissions. The B20 fuel blend improves BTE by 4.7%, CO2 emissions has been increased by 2.56%, while SFC is lowered by 7.92% as compared to diesel fuel. In biodiesel blend (B20) the highest reduction in NOx by 14.9%, particulate by 4.22% is observed although smoke emission slightly rises with increase in fish oil in the blends, as compared to diesel fuel.Fri, 14 Jun 2019 19:30:00 +0100Identification of rotor bearing parameters using vibration response data in a turbocharger rotor
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_901_208.html
Turbochargers are most widely used in automotive, marine and locomotive applications with diesel engines. To increase the engine performance nowadays, in aerospace applications also turbochargers are used. Mostly the turbocharger rotors are commonly supported over the fluid film bearings. With the operation, lubricant properties continuously alter leading to different load bearing capacities. This paper deals with the diagnostic approach for prediction of shaft unbalance and the bearing parameters using the measured frequency responses at the bearing locations. After validating the natural frequencies of the rotor finite element model with experimental analysis, the response histories of the rotor are recorded. The influence of the parameters such as bearing clearance, oil viscosity and casing stiffness on the unbalance response is studied. By considering three levels each for shaft unbalance and oil viscosity, the output data in terms of four statistical parameters of equivalent Hilbert envelopes in the frequency domain are measured. The data is inversely trained using Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network model to predict the unbalance and oil viscosity indices from given output response characteristics. The outputs of the RBF model are validated thoroughly. This approach finds changes in the rotor bearing parameters from the measured responses in a dynamic manner. The results indicate that there is an appreciable effect of lubricant viscosity at two different temperatures compared to other parameters within the operating speed range. The identification methodology using the neural network is quite fast and reliableSat, 31 Aug 2019 19:30:00 +0100Effect of axial groove location, length & width ratio on the bearing properties and stability
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1071_0.html
There are many industrial application of axial grooved journal bearing especially in turbo machinery. The stability is a very big issue for researcher, in high speed rotating machines. The axial groove journal bearing have a capacity to reduce the vibration and ability to resolve the heating problems as well as stability at higher speed. Dynamic performance parameters and stability of axial grooved hybrid journal bearings depend on the dimensions and orientations of groove in a great extent at higher speeds. In this work, a FORTRAN program has been used to solve Reynolds governing equation. The bearing performance characteristics have been simulated for the various dimensions and orientation of groove. Non linear journal centre trajectories are drawn for different Reynolds number for stability analysis. It has been found that the smaller groove length has resulted in lower bearing capacity whereas smaller groove width yielded higher bearing capacity and the turbulence decreases the stability. The groove location also strongly affects most performance parameter. The optimum location of groove axis was obtained between 60 degree to 90 degree to the load line.Fri, 14 Jun 2019 19:30:00 +0100Dynamic stress concentration in a hybrid composite laminate subjected to a sudden internal break
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_821_208.html
In this work, transient dynamic stress concentration in a hybrid composite laminate subjected to a sudden internal crack is examined. It is assumed that all fibers lie in one direction and the applied load acts along direction of fibers. Two types arrangements are considered for the fiber; square and hexagonal arrangement. Using shear lag model, equilibrium equations are deduced and upon proper application of initial and boundary conditions, the complete field equations are obtained using finite difference method. The results of dynamic effect of fiber breakage on stress concentration are well examined in presence of a second type fiber. These results are compared to those of their static values in both models. The effect of surface cracks on stress concentration, as a result of fiber breakage, is also examined. The values of dynamic stress concentrations is deduced and compared to those of a lamina. Also, the peak stress concentration during transition time for fibers to reach static equilibrium is calculated and compared with those of static values.Sat, 31 Aug 2019 19:30:00 +0100Mechanism of surface generation in grinding of AA6061-TiB2/ZrB2 in-situ composites
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1070_0.html
In-situ composites are gained the attention of worldwide researchers in the interest of its greater mechanical properties at the lower reinforcement ratio. Controlling the surface quality of the component is a paramount task in grinding process in order to withstand the creep and fatigue load at service conditions. The current effort is intended to examine the mechanism of surface generation in grinding of AA6061-TiB2/ZrB2 in-situ composites under different reinforcement ratio, grinding parameters and wheel materials. The analysis of results indicates that the grinding of unreinforced alloy is complicated than the composites. Diamond wheel yields superior performance by generating lesser surface roughness and subsurface hardness at all grinding conditions. Among the various grinding parameters, grinding speed and grinding depth are more sensitive than other parameters. This experimental investigation helps to control the surface roughness and subsurface at various grinding conditions. Understanding of surface generation mechanism in grinding of in-situ composites helps to employ the grinding process for economic machining rate without negotiating the surface quality.Fri, 14 Jun 2019 19:30:00 +0100Heat transfer characteristics of methane-air diffusion flames impinging normally on plane surfaces
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1067_0.html
Theoretical investigation of turbulent flame impinging normally on plane surfaces has been done to determine the average Nusselt number and the plate heat flux distribution as functions of jet Reynolds number, equivalence ratio (ER) and separation distance (H/d). The analysis is established on mathematical formulation of the governing equations for conservation of mass, momentum and energy. The turbulence phenomena is analyzed by the help of RNG k-ε turbulence model. The radiative heat transfer model has been designed by using Discrete Ordinates (DO) radiation model. It has been found that the heat flux gradually increases with the radial distance towards the plate centre and attains a maximum value at a location slightly away from stagnation point. The peak value in the local heat flux comes closer to the stagnation point when the height between the plates and the nozzle increases. Effects of variation of dimensionless separation distance on heat transfer characteristics have been investigated. It is observed that heat flux gradually improves when the value of H/d changes from 12 to 8 and decreases near the stagnation region with the further decrease in H/d from 8 to 4.Fri, 14 Jun 2019 19:30:00 +0100Analytical study of heat and mass transfer in axisymmetric unsteady flow by ADM method
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1066_0.html
Findings the solutions for heat and mass transfer problems is significant due to their applications in the science and engineering. In this study, Adomian decomposition method (ADM) is chosen as a robust analytical method for investigation of heat and mass transfer characteristics in a viscous fluid which is squeezed between parallel plates. In order to ensure the validation of results, the obtained results of ADM method are compared with the numerical (Runge-Kutta method) results and reasonable agreement was observed. These comparisons confirm that Adomian decomposition method is a powerful and reliable approach for solving this problem. Then, diverse governing parameters namely; the squeeze number, Prandtl number, Eckert number, Schmidt number and the chemical reaction parameter are comprehensively studied. Our findings reveal that Sherwood number rises as Schmidt number and chemical reaction parameter increases while it declines with growths of the squeeze number. Likewise, it can be found that Nusselt number enhances with rise of Prandtl number and Eckert number and it decreases when the squeeze number increases.Fri, 14 Jun 2019 19:30:00 +0100Application of Image-based Acquisition Techniques for Additive Manufacturing using Canny Edge ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1062_0.html
Edge is an indispensable characteristic of an image, defined as the contour between two regions with significant variance in terms of surface reflectance, illumination, intensity, color and texture. Detection of edges is a basic requirement for diverse contexts for design automation. This study presents a guideline to assign appropriate threshold and sigma values for Canny edge detector to increase the efficiency of additive manufacturing. The algorithm uses different combinations of threshold and sigma on a color palette and the results are statistically formulated using multiple regression analysis with an accuracy of 95.93%. An image-based acquisition technique system is designed and developed for test applications to create three-dimensional objects. In addition, graphical user interface is developed to convert a selected design of a complex image to a three-dimensional object with generation of Cartesian coordinates of the detected edges and extrusion. The developed system reduces the cost and time of developing an existing design of an object for additive manufacturing by 20% and 70% respectively.Sat, 08 Jun 2019 19:30:00 +0100Analysis of Factors Affecting Delamination in Drilling GFRP Composite
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1061_0.html
Composite materials have proven their applicability for various structural components. Glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite materials have potential applications in aerospace, automobile related industries due to their excellent properties. Drilling is important operation for composite structures during final assembly. This paper investigates the factors affecting delamination in glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite during the drilling process. Drill speed and feed rate are selected two parameters affecting delamination during the drilling process. Response surface methodology (RSM) approach has been used for experimental design and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Delamination evaluated at entry, middle and exit position of the hole. An attempt has been made to optimize speed and feed for minimization of delamination at these three positions using grey relational analysis (GRA). The results of this work will help in selecting an optimum level of speed and feed to minimize delamination at entry, middle, and exit position of the hole improving quality of the drilled hole.Sat, 01 Jun 2019 19:30:00 +0100Experimental Evaluation and Estimation of Frictional Behavior of Polymer Matrix Composites
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1060_0.html
As the fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites gives good strength and can work in rigorous environmental conditions, nowadays more focus is given to study the behavior of these materials under different operating conditions. Due to the environmental concern focus on the natural fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite (NFRPC) is enhancing both in research and industrial sectors. Currently focus has been given to unify solid fillers with the NFRPC to improve its mechanical and tribo properties. Aligned to this, the present work discusses the effect of various weight fraction of fillers (Flyash, SiC and graphite) on the frictional behavior of natural fiber (cotton) polyester matrix composites. The specimen prepared with Hand lay-up process followed by compression molding. A plan of experiments, response surface technique, was used to obtain response in an organized way by varying load, speed and sliding distance. The test results reveal that different weight concentration of fillers has considerable result on the output. The frictional behavior of materials evaluated by general regression and artificial neural network (ANN). The validation experiment effects show the estimated friction by using ANN was more closer to experimental values compare to the regression models.Sat, 01 Jun 2019 19:30:00 +0100Novel Numerical Solution of Non-linear Heat Transfer of Nanofluid over a Porous Cylinder: ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1059_0.html
The study aims to investigate numerically a two dimensional, steady, heat transfer over a cylinder in porous medium with suspending nanoparticles. Buongiorno model is adopted for nanofluid transport on free convection flow taking the slip mechanism of Brownian motion and thermophoresis into account. Boussinesq approximation is considered to account for buoyancy. The boundary layer conservation equations are transformed into dimensionless, and then elucidated using robust Keller-box implicit code numerically. The numerical results are displayed graphically and deliberated quantitatively for various values of thermo-physical parameters. Our results shows that, increasing Forchheimer parameter, Λ, clearly swamps the nanofluid momentum development, decreasing the flow for some distance near the cylinder viscous region, later its reverse the trend and asymptotically reaches the far field flow velocity. Furthermore, as increases thermophoresis, heat transfer and nanoparticle volume concentration increased in the boundary layer. The present results are validated with the available results of similar study and is found to be in good coincident. The study finds applications in heat exchangers technology, materials processing and geothermal energy storage etc.Sat, 01 Jun 2019 19:30:00 +0100Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization of WEDM Process Parameters for Inconel 825
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1058_0.html
With the increased diversity of the customer demand and complexity of the product Inconel 825 is widely used to meet the actual needs especially in aerospace industry. It is difficult-to-cut material because of its high toughness and hardness. The present research attempts to optimize the process parameters of wire electric discharge machining (WEDM) during cutting operation of Inconel 825. WEDM characteristics such as pulse-on time (Ton), pulse-off time (Toff), spark gap voltage (SV), peak current (IP),wire tension (WT), wire feed (WF) are taken into consideration. Performance was measured in terms of material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (SR) and wire wear ratio (WWR). Central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) at α value of ± 2 was employed to establish the mathematical model between process parameters and performance measures. Multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm has been used to find the Pareto optimal solutions. It uses the concept of dominance to find the non dominated set in the entire population and crowding distance approach to find best Pareto optimal solutions with a good diversity of objectives. The confirmation experiments of MOPSO algorithm shows the significant improvement in MRR (27.934 to 31.687 mm2/min), SR (2.689 to 2.448μm) and WWR (0.027 to 0.030). SEM micrograph studies showed the number of cracks, pockmarks, craters, and pulled out material on the workpiece and wire electrode surface. Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis is performed to investigate the presence of elements on the work surface other than base material.Sat, 01 Jun 2019 19:30:00 +0100Transient Analysis of Radiative Hydromagnetic Poiseuille fluid flow of Two-step Exothermic ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1056_0.html
In this research, the transient analysis of radiative combustible viscous chemical reactive two-step exothermic fluid flow past a permeable medium with various kinetics i.e Bimolecular, Arrhenius and Sensitized are investigated. The hydromagnetic liquid is influenced by a periodic vicissitudes in the axial pressure gradient and time along the channel axis in the occurrence of walls asymmetric convective cooling. The convectional heat transport at the wall surfaces with the neighboring space takes after the cooling law. The non-dimensional principal flow equations are computationally solved by applying convergent and absolutely stable semi-implicit finite difference techniques. The influences of the fluid terms associated with the momentum and energy equations are graphically presented and discussed quantitatively. The results show that the reaction parameter (𝜆) is very sensitive and it is therefore needs to be carefully monitor to avoid systems blow up. Also, a rise in the values of the second step term enhances the combustion rate and thereby reduces the release of unburned hydrocarbon that polluted the environment.Sat, 25 May 2019 19:30:00 +0100Numerical analysis of heat transfer in helical tube with the aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nano fluid ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1055_0.html
The most important reason for the design of curved tubes is increasing the heat transfer between the fluid and the wall which has provided many applications in various industries such as air conditioning, micro-electric, heat exchangers and etc. The aim of this study is numerical investigation of nano fluids flow in spiral tubes with injection of base fluid in different Reynolds numbers. According to, the effects of volume fraction, nanoparticle diameter, fluid injection, Reynolds number and spin effects on heat transfer and flow in the spiral tube are discussed. In this study, a mixture of water-Al2O3 is selected to model nano fluid flow in order to investigate the changes of the heat transfer rate by the injection of nanofluid to the base fluid in the spiral tube at different angles. The results show that by use of nanoparticles, the rotational effects of tube and the injection process increase the heat transfer performance. It was found that increasing the volume fraction has a direct effect on increasing the heat transfer coefficient. As the volume fraction increases from 2% to 8%, the heat transfer coefficient increases by 2%. In fact, the effect of nanoparticles on the thermal conductivity of the fluid causes this increase. Also, injection of fluid into the stream due to disturbance in the thickness of the boundary layer and the further mixing of the fluid layers which increases the heat transfer. 90-degree injection has the best effect. Cu2O3 –water nano fluid mixture has also been used. The results are presented in this paper and compared with the Al2O3 nano fluid model which indicates that the increase of heat transfer rate in Cu nano fluid was higher than aluminum nano fluid due to higher heat transfer capacity of Copper.Sat, 25 May 2019 19:30:00 +0100Unsteady convective flow for MHD Powell-Eyring fluid over inclined permeable surface
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1054_0.html
In the current article has been investigated unsteady convective flow for MHD non-Newtonian Powell-Eyring fluid embedded porous medium over inclined permeable stretching sheet. We have pondered the thermophoresis parameter, chemical reaction, variable thermal conductivity, Brownian motion, variable heat source and variable thermal radiation in temperature and concentration profiles. Using similarly transformation the PDEs are converted by couple ODEs and solve by R–K–Fehlberg 4th –5th order method. The physical features of non-dimensional radiation parameter, non-Newtonian fluid parameters, suction /injection parameter, mass Grashof number porosity parameter, temperature ratio parameter, thermal Grashof number, Biot number of temperature and Biot number of concentration have been analyzed by plotting the graphs of graphically representation of momentum, heat and mass profiles. , and have been analyzed. The transfer rate of temperature is decreased whereas the flow rate of fluid is growth with an enhance in (K) and (Gr). The transfer rate of temperature is distinctly boosted whereas the fluid flow rate is distinctly declined with an enhance in (M) , (Kp).Sat, 25 May 2019 19:30:00 +0100OPERATIONAL TRENDS OF A MINI PARABOLIC SOLAR COLLECTOR FOR AGRICULTURAL PURPOSES IN A ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1047_0.html
The mode of operation of mini parabolic solar panels made of germanium, mild steel and aluminium were investigated experimentally, as means of providing heated water on a farmland; the process was also modelled. Angular adjustments of the solar collectors from 70-90o were adopted in order to determine, the best material of construction for the parabolic solar collector and the angular orientation with the highest heat collection tendency and absorption rate. The highest quantity of adsorbed heat/best heating effect of the solar collector was obtained at an angular orientation of 80o for mild steel and aluminium. It was also observed that, the parabolic solar collectors have their optimum exposure times, after which, the heating rate drops or there is loss of heat from its surface. The experimental and model estimates, in terms of heat absorption for the mild steel solar collector at 70 and 90o angular tilts, shows that, the optimum heating time was 40 minutes while at 80o, the optimum heating time was found to be 50 minutes.Sun, 14 Apr 2019 19:30:00 +0100Numerical modeling of three-phase flow through a Venturi meter using the LSSVM algorithm
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1046_0.html
One of the challenging problems in the Oil & Gas industry is accurate and reliable multiphase flow rate measurement in a three-phase flow. Application of methods with minimized uncertainty is required in the industry. Previous developed correlations for two-phase flow are complex and not capable of three-phase flow. Hence phase behavior identification in different conditions to designing and modeling of three-phase flow is important. Numerous laboratory and theoretical studies have been done to describe the Venturi multiphase flow meter in both horizontal and vertical flow. However, it is not possible to select the measurement devices for all similar conditions. In this study a new venturi model was developed that implemented in Simulink/Matlab for predicting mass flow rate of gas, water and oil. This models is simple and semilinear. Several classified configurations of three phase flow were simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis to get hydrodynamics parameters of the flows to use as inputs of the model. The obtained data, used as test and train data in Least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) algorithm. The pressure drop, mass flow rate of gas, oil and water have been calculated with LSSVM method. Two tuning parameters of LSSVM, namely γ and σ^2, obtained as 1150954 and 0.4384, 53.9199 and 0.18163, 8.8714 and 0.14424, and 10039130.2214 and 0.74742 for pressure drop, mass flow rate of oil, gas mass flow rate, water mass flow rate, respectively. Developed models was found to have an average relative error of 5.81%, 6.31% and 2.58% for gas, oil and water respectively.Sun, 14 Apr 2019 19:30:00 +0100LabVIEW Implementation of an Enhanced Nonlinear PID Controller Based on Harmony Search for ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1045_0.html
This paper presents a practical implementation for a new formula of nonlinear PID (NPID) control. The purpose of the controller is to accurately trace a preselected position reference of one stage servomechanism system. The possibility of developing a transfer function model for experimental setup is elusive because of the lack of system data. So, the identified model has been developed via gathering experimental input/output data. The performance of the enhanced nonlinear PID (NPID) controller had been investigated by comparing it with linear PID controller. The harmony search (HS) tuning system had built to determine the optimum parameters for each control technique based on an effective objective function. The experimental outcomes and the simulation results show that the proposed NPID controller has minimum rise time and settling time through constant position reference test. Also, the NPID control is faster than the linear PID control by 40% in case of variable position reference test.Sat, 13 Apr 2019 19:30:00 +0100Investigation of hot metal gas forming process of square parts
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1044_0.html
Aluminum alloys are considered a lot in the automotive and aerospace industry because of their high strength to weight ratio. In this manuscript, the gas forming process of aluminum AA6063 tubes at high temperatures up to 500°C is investigated, through experimental and numerical tests. Therefore, an experimental setup is prepared and so, tube specimens are formed in a die with square cross section. Finite element simulation of the hot gas forming process is carried out to investigate the effects of process parameters including time period of forming process, temperature, and loading path. Uniaxial tensile tests under various temperatures and strain rates is performed, in order to obtain flow stress curves of the material. Corner radius and thickness distribution of tubular formed parts is investigated. The results show smaller corner radii could be formed at higher temperatures, whereas lower forming pressure is necessary. Increasing the time period of the process enhances the corners of the specimens to be formed. In addition, the maximum of formability is obtained when the gas pressure increases rapidly at the beginning of the process. However, the increasing rate of gas pressure must be reduced to form a smaller corner radius.Sat, 13 Apr 2019 19:30:00 +0100Dynamic response of a shaft of a Pelton turbine due to impact of water jet
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1043_0.html
Performance and reliability of any rotating machine can be studied by proper dynamic analysis of the machine. In this regard, this paper presents the method to study the dynamic response of the shaft of a Pelton turbine due to the impact of water jet. Equations of motion for the bending vibration of Pelton turbine assembly, in two transverse directions, is developed by using Lagrange equation of motion with the help of assumed modes method. The Pelton wheel is assumed as a rigid disk attached on Euler-Bernoulli shaft. The impact provided by the water jet is represented in the form of Fourier series. Critical speeds of the system are determined by performing free vibration analysis and presented in the form of Campbell diagram. The response plots due to impact of water are generated by performing forced response analysis. Both free and forced analyses are carried out by considering first three modes of vibration.Sat, 13 Apr 2019 19:30:00 +0100Effects of the asymmetric behavior of the shape memory alloy on nonlinear dynamic responses of ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1034_0.html
In the present article, dynamic behavior of sandwich plates with embedded SMA wires is evaluated for two cases: (i) stress-strain curve of the superelastic behavior of the SMA is symmetric and (ii) the mentioned curve is non-symmetric. A modified version of Brinson’s constitutive model is proposed and used in the present research. In this regard, in addition to the proposed advanced algorithm for determination of the martensite volume fraction, a Picard iterative solution algorithm is used in conjunction with Newmark’s numerical time integration method for solving the resulting finite element equations. In order to increase the accuracy of the results, variations of the martensite volume fraction and material properties of individual points of the structure are updated continuously. Therefore, the kinetic equations of the phase transformation of the SMA are coupled with the motion equations, to accurately model the nonlinear behavior of the sandwich plate. For analysis of the thick sandwich plate, a higher order global-local theory with novel 3D-equilibrium-based corrections has been utilized. One of the features of this theory is the capability of estimation of the nonlinear in-plane displacement components, and precise assessment of the transverse shear stresses through satisfying the continuity conditions of the shear stresses at the interfaces between layers. Another advantage of the proposed theory in comparison with the conventional approaches is the ability to simulate changes of the core thickness. This is especially important in cases where the core is relatively thick or soft.Sun, 24 Feb 2019 20:30:00 +0100GRASP ANALYSIS OF A FOUR-FINGERED ROBOTIC HAND BASED ON MATLAB SIMMECHANICS
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1033_0.html
The structure of human hand is a complex design comprising of various bones, joints, tendons, and muscles functioning together in order to produce the desired motion. It becomes a challenging task to develop a robotic hand replicating the capabilities of the human hand. In this paper, the analysis of the four-fingered robotic hand is carried out where the tendon wires and a spring return mechanism is used for the flexion and extension motion of the fingers respectively. Stable grasping and fine manipulation of different objects are desired from any multi-finger robotic hand. In this regard, it becomes necessary to check the performance of the four-fingered robotic hand. Simulations are performed for the hand to grasp objects of different size and shapes and the hand model is controlled in MATLAB environment using the SimMechanics toolbox. Here the Kinematics and Dynamics study of the hand system is carried out by importing the Solidworks model into the SimMechanics. Simulation results demonstrate that the developed hand model is able to grasp objects of varying size and shapes securely.Sun, 24 Feb 2019 20:30:00 +0100Numerical modeling and comparison study of elliptical cracks effect on the pipes straight and ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1025_0.html
The present work deals with the effect of an external circumferential elliptical crack located at thickness transition on a varied stepped diameter pipe . The purpose is the application of the extended finite element method (XFEM) for the calculation of SIF at the thickness transition region of pipe considering internal pressure and compare the effect of the crack between pipes straight and with thickness transition. To model a crack with precision , enrichment functions are used to enrich the displacement approximation, the level set functions are calculated from the crack mesh and definition of the strategy of integration has been performed. A comparative study is made on SIF of crack defect in straight pipe compared to one with thickness transition using XFEM for the crack and pipe geometrical parameters variations. The result shows that the XFEM is an effective and practical tool for elliptic crack modeling in a pipe with thickness transition because a crack is easily modeled through enrichment functions.The comparison of the SIF of a similar defect between pipes shows that a pressurized pipe with thickness transition is more sensitive to the used cracks.Tue, 19 Feb 2019 20:30:00 +0100Parametric study on axial compressor performance in design condition
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1024_0.html
In This paper, a parametric study of compressor performances was performed by streamline curvature method (SLC). Effects of three input parameters in design process, e.g., number of blades, distribution of blade thickness, and blade sweep angels, on the main objective parameters in aerodynamic design, e.g., velocity distribution, efficiency and pressure ratio, has been investigated in the parametric study. Initially, a certain two stage axial compressor has been designed by SLC. Validation of the results is confirmed by comparing the obtained results with the experimental ones. Regarding various values for aforementioned input parameters, the first stage of the axial compressor is redesigned and the output parameter is established. Therefore, the sensitivity of the design results to each of the aforementioned parameters is recognized. Results show that increasing the blades sweep angle causes to improve the flow behavior such as efficiency and pressure ratio in axial fan and reducing it have a completely contrary result. Also, reducing the rotors blades number leads to an increase in the pressure ratio and efficiency while its increase cause to a contrary result. , it is concluded that reduction in the blades number has the stronger effect on the performance parameters than its increment. The results also show that effect of the thickness in the hub is greater than the thickness of the tip and its increase leads to reduce both efficiency and pressure ratio.Tue, 19 Feb 2019 20:30:00 +0100Numerical investigation of upward air-water annular, slug and bubbly flow regimes
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1023_0.html
In this paper, numerical investigation of upward two phase flow of air-water has been studied. Different conditions of flow regimes including annular, wispy annular, slug, churn and bubbly are simulated based on Hewitt and Roberts map, and a good agreement between the experimental data of the map and the numerical simulation has been observed. Accordingly, a proper CFD model in CFD software of Fluent with the required User Defined Function (UDF) has been obtained to simulate two phase flows of fluids with large density ratio in vertical tubes. The simulation is carried out with the volume of fluid (VOF) method and piecewise interface calculation (PLIC) algorithm for tracking the interface for the annular, wispy annular, churn and slug flow regimes and drift flux model for bubbly with proper selection of computational cell and time step sizes. Furthermore, water and air momentum fluxes have been changed and the changes to the flow patterns are studied.Tue, 19 Feb 2019 20:30:00 +0100Numerical study of induction heating by micro / nano magnetic particles in hyperthermia
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1022_0.html
Hyperthermia is one of the first applications of nanotechnology in medicine by using micro/nano magnetic particles that acts based on the heat of ferric oxide nanoparticles or quantum dots in an external alternating magnetic field. In this study, a two-dimensional model of body and tumor tissues imbedded was considered. Initially, the temperature distribution was obtained with respect to tumor properties and without the presence of an electromagnetic field. Then, the effect the electromagnetic field on the temperature distribution was studied. The results have been compared with other papers. These results indicated that the use of the electromagnetic field causes a significant rise in the tumor temperature; however, the risk of damage to the healthy tissues surrounding the cancerous tissue seems to be high. Then, the micro/nanoparticles were injected into the tumor tissue to focus energy on cancerous tissue and maximally transfer the heat onto this tissue. The temperature distribution in the state was compared with the case without the nanoparticles and other numerical works. The results demonstrated that with the injection of nanoparticles into the tumor, the maximum temperature location was transferred to the center of the tumor and also increases to 6°C. After determining the temperature distribution in the presence of nanoparticles, the effects of different variables of the problem were studied. According to the obtained results, the increase in the concentration and radius of nanoparticles have a positive effect on the temperature distribution in the tissue; on the other hand, the increase in the frequency and size of the electrodes have a negative effect. The relevant equations were solved numerically using the finite difference method.Tue, 19 Feb 2019 20:30:00 +0100Effectiveness of alumina nanofluid on slotting end milling performance of SKD 11 tool steel
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1021_0.html
SKD 11 tool steels are among the most popular metals in mould industries for making different kinds of cold work molds and dies with high accuracy and long service life. They have a high percentage of carbon and chromium (12% chrome) with attractive properties of high wear resistance, good hardenability, high oxidation resistance, good corrosion resistance after quenching and polishing, small deformation after heat treatment. However, it is grouped under difficult-to-cut materials and makes it extremely difficult and expensive to machine using conventional machining processes. The demand for higher quality, lower manufacturing costs, particularly the environmental friendly characteristics has created the stimuli for manufacturers and researchers to find alternative solutions. An excellent media is formed in cutting zone by using MQL nanofluids in order to enhance the thermal conductivity and tribological characteristics, therefore improving the machining performance. The formation of lubricating film as well as the rolling action of nanoparticles in contact zones has gained much attention in the machining field. In this research work, the application of MQL Al2O3 nanofluids with vegetable oils and emulsion 5% is developed for slotting end milling of SKD 11 steel using normal HSS tool. The cutting forces, tool wear, tool life and surface roughness are investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of MQL nanofluid on cutting performance. The experimental results reveal that the cutting forces and cutting temperature decrease and the surface quality and tool life enhance. Furthermore, the improvement of the thermal conductivity of nanofluids is proven when compared to the pure fluids. Due to the rise of viscosity and thermal conductivity, the soybean oil-based nanofluid, which is almost inherently nontoxic, gives them superior lubricating and cooling properties suitable for MQL application compared to emulsion-based nanofluids. The novel environmental friendly technology definitely brings out many technological and economic benefits in machining practice.Mon, 18 Feb 2019 20:30:00 +0100Development Length of Laminar Magnetohydrodynamics Pipe Flows
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1020_0.html
In this article, a laminar magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) developing flow of an incompressible electrically conducting fluid subjected to an external magnetic field is considered. The aim of the study is to propose a correlation for computing the development length of the laminar MHD developing flow in a pipe. A numerical approach is considered to solve the problem. In the first step, the numerical Finite Volume Method (FVM) is conducted to analyze the problem. Hereafter, the artificial neural network (ANN) is used to develop the datasets and in the last step, the curve fitting is applied to find a correlation for prediction of the development length as a function of the Reynolds and Hartmann numbers. In addition, the effect of the problem parameters on the development length are studied. It is found that the development length declines with the increase of the Hartmann number and grows with the rising of the Reynolds number.Mon, 18 Feb 2019 20:30:00 +0100The effect of injection parameters on dimensional accuracy of wax patterns for investment casting
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_1000_0.html
Thermal expansion and hot deformation are two phenomena that cause dimensional errors in investment casting. This error occur in dimensions between the die pattern and the wax pattern. Therefore, the wax's thermo-physical and thermo-mechanical properties, the metal die features, and the process parameters affect the dimensions of the wax pattern. Some important effective process parameters are the injection temperature, the injection temperature, the die temperature and the holding time. In this paper, the effect of injection parameters on dimensional accuracy of wax models created by a metallic die has been studied. The Taguchi formulation based on design of experiments has been applied in order to obtain the optimum condition to achieve the best dimensional accuracy. The studied specimen with “F” shape has 10 dimensions. The root mean square (RMS) of dimensional differences has been considered for accuracy analysis. The results has shown that if the injection temperature, the injection pressure and the holding time be considered as 80oC, 20 bar, and 2.5 minute, respectively, the best accuracy may be achieved.Mon, 04 Feb 2019 20:30:00 +0100Investigation of injection timing and different fuels on the diesel engine performance and emissions
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_999_0.html
Start of fuel injection and fuel type are two important factors affecting engine performance and exhaust emissions in internal combustion engines. In the present study, a one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics solution with GT-Power software was used to simulate a six-cylinder diesel engine to study the performance and exhaust emissions with different injection timing and alternative fuels. Starting the fuel injection from 10 °CA BTDC to the TDC with an interval between two units and from alternative fuel bases (diesel), including methanol, ethanol, diesel and ethanol compounds, biodiesel and decane. To validate the model, a comparison was made between simulation data and experimental data (including torque and power), which showed that the validation error was less than 6.12%, which indicates the software model validation. Also, the modeling results showed that decane fuel had a higher brake power and brake torque of more than 6.10 % while fuel injected at 10 °CA BTDC compared to the base fuel, and illustrated a reduction of 5.75 % in specific fuel consumption due to producing higher power. In addition, with the advanced of injection timing compared to baseline, the amount of CO and HC in biodiesel fuel reduced and it’s amount was 83.88% and 64.87% respectively, and the lowest NOX emission with the retardation of starting injection, to decane fuel was awarded. In general, the results showed that decane fuel could be a good alternative to diesel fuel in diesel engines when it started fuel injection at 10 °CA BTDC.Mon, 04 Feb 2019 20:30:00 +0100Cooling a hot obstacle in a rectangular enclosure by using a MHD nanofluid with variable properties
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_991_0.html
In this study, cooling of a hot obstacle in a rectangular cavity filled with water-CuO nanolfuid has been examined numerically. This cavity has an inlet and outlet and the cold nanofuid comes from the left side of the cavity and after cooling the hot obstacle, it goes out from the opposite site. All of the walls are insulated, and the SIMPLER algorithm has been employed for solving the governing equations. The effects of fluid inertia, magnetic field strength, volume fraction of nanoparticles, and the place of outlet on heat transfer rate has been scrutinized. According to the results, the average Nusselt number builds up as the outlet place goes down. In other words, when the outlet is located at the bottom of the cavity, the rate of the heat transfer is maximum. Moreover, by increasing the Reynolds number and volume fraction of nanoparticles, the average Nusselt number builds up as well.Tue, 22 Jan 2019 20:30:00 +0100Investigation of natural convection heat transfer of MHD hybrid nanofluid in a triangular enclosure
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_976_0.html
Natural convection heat transfer is studied numerically in a triangular enclosure. The enclosure is isosceles right triangle and its bottom wall is hot, the hypotenuse is cold and the other wall is adiabatic. Also, a vertical magnetic field is applied in the enclosure, and there is hybrid nanofluid inside the enclosure. This study is conducted for Rayleigh numbers of 103-105, the Hartmann numbers between 0-80, and the volume fraction of nanofluid is between 0-2 percent. Based on the obtained results, as the Hartmann number augments, the temperature of the center of the enclosure decreases due to weakening of the heat transfer flow by increasing the magnetic field forces. In addition, as the Hartmann number augments, the streamlines approach to the walls because the horizontal momentum forces decrease when the Hartmann number increases. Furthermore, by increasing the density of nanoparticles, the heat transfer rate increase, and as a result, heat transfer builds up. Finally, heat transfer improve when the hybrid-nanofluid is employed rather than ordinary nanofluid.Mon, 07 Jan 2019 20:30:00 +0100Computational evaluation of the homogeneity of composites processed by accumulative roll ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_923_0.html
A new computational method based on MATLAB was used to study the effect of different parameters on the homogeneity of composites produced by a severe plastic deformation (SPD) technique known as accumulative roll bonding (ARB). For higher number of passes, the degree of particle agglomeration and clustering decreased and an appreciable homogeneity was obtained in both longitudinal and transverse directions. Moreover, it was found that the rolling temperature does not have any tangible effect on the distribution of particles. Furthermore, it was shown that while faster homogeneity can be obtained in the transverse direction by cross accumulative roll bonding process, there is not any significant difference between homogeneity of particle distribution between this technique and other routes. In fact, after enough passes, the homogeneity level in all processing methods tends to a common value. Finally, the evolution of the mechanical properties of the composites sheets based on the work hardening, composite strengthening, grain refinement at high ARB cycles, and bonding between particles and the matrix was also briefly discussed.Fri, 09 Nov 2018 20:30:00 +0100High-velocity impact properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/E-glass fiber/epoxy anisogrid ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_922_0.html
This work reports on high-velocity impact response of multiscale anisogrid composite (AGC) panels. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the infleunce of surface-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (S-MWCNTs) at different S-MWCNTs contents (0-0.5 wt.% at an interval of 0.1 wt.%) on the high-velocity impact responses of E-glass/epoxy AGC. Surface modification of MWCNTs was confirmed by fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses. AGC panels were fabricated via a manual filament winding technique. E-glass fiber roving and E-glass woven fabric were employed as reinforcing agents in ribs and skin, respectively. The impact test was done on the composite panels by a cylindrical projectile with a conical nose. The obtained results showed that the highest enhancement in the impact characteristics was attributed to the panel containing 0.4 wt.% S-MWCNTs. Based on the analysis of fracture surfaces, enhanced interfacial fiber/matrix bonding was observed for the S-MWCNTs loaded specimen. Furthermore, the incorporation of MWCNTs led to reduced damaged area and enhanced tolerance of damage.Fri, 09 Nov 2018 20:30:00 +0100Experimental investigation on constant-speed diesel engine fuelled with biofuel mixtures under ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_921_0.html
The petroleum product has seen drastic demand in recent past. Bio fuels is the only solution to overcome this power crisis. In the view of sustainable energy development, bio diesel and its additives have become the best options for fossil fuel-based engines. In this work, a bio diesel mix was used to show the possibility utilization of different bio fuels. Experimental investigation was carried out on a direct-injection constant-speed (Rated speed- 1500 rpm) diesel engine at different injection pressures of 180, 220 and 260 bar with natural aspiration and supercharging modes. The blends of Bio diesel (used cooking oil, with a mix of algae) and diesel fuels are the selected fuel to investigate. At lower injection pressures, brake speciﬁc fuel consumption of the engine was low and further lowered with supercharging operation. With the reduction of injection pressures, brake thermal efﬁciency values are improved and the same was observed with supercharging. With the rise in injection pressures NOx emissions increased due to rise in temperature and unburnt hydrocarbon emissions were slightly increased. The algae bio diesel was used as an additive to increase the stability of bio diesel. The overall observation indicates that a moderate injection pressure of 220 bar is advisable.Fri, 09 Nov 2018 20:30:00 +0100Effect of blade profile on the performance characteristics of axial compressor in design condition
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_907_0.html
The choice of geometrical shape of the blades has a considerable effect on aerodynamic performance and flow characteristics in the axial compressor. In this paper, the effects of the blades shape on the aerodynamic design characteristics are investigated based on Streamline Curvature Method (SCM). Initially, the Streamline Curvature Method (SCM) is used for design of certain two-stage axial compressor. Comparing the current results with experimental ones indicate good agreement. The first stage of the axial compressor is selected with three different blade profiles. First case (case I) has the polynomial camber with naca thickness distribution series 6. Second case (case II) has the standard naca profile series 6 and third case (case III) has the modified standard naca profile series 4. Results reveal that using the standard airfoils in the stators leads to improved flow conditions such as loss coefficient and pressure ratio. Contrary, this profile selection may cause to increase in the stagger angle that is not favorable. Aerodynamic Design with a polynomial camber line in the rotor demonstrate a better aerodynamic behavior in loss coefficient, pressure ratio and diffusion factor. Whilst the use of such a camber line in the stator leads to the formation of less favorable aerodynamics conditions than the standard airfoil.Sat, 03 Nov 2018 20:30:00 +0100Magneto Prandtl nanofluid past a stretching surface with non-linear radiation and chemical reaction
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_906_0.html
In this article, we examined the behavior of chemical reaction effect on a magnetohydrodynamic Prandtl nanofluid flow due to stretchable sheet. Non-linear thermally radiative term is accounted in energy equation. Constructive transformation is adopted to formulate the ordinary coupled differential equations system. This system of equations is treated numerically through Runge Kutta Fehlberg-45 method based shooing method. The role of physical constraints on liquid velocity, temperature and concentration are discussed through numerical data and plots. Also the skin friction co-efficient, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood numbers is calculated to study the flow behavior at the wall, which is also presented in tabular form. A comparative analysis is presented with the previous published data in special case for the justification of present results. Output reveals that for larger values of elastic and Prandtl parameter enhanced the thickness of momentum layer and reduces the rates of both heat and mass transport. Also increment of slip parameter decelerated both temperature and concentration filed while nonlinear form thermal radiation rapidly increases the temperature.Sat, 03 Nov 2018 20:30:00 +0100Numerical analysis of heat transfer enhancement and flow structure of alternating oval tubes by ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_903_0.html
In this research, the convective heat transfer in turbulent water fluid flow in alternating oval tubes is studied using computational fluid dynamics. The purpose of this study is to analysis the heat transfer enhancement and secondary internal flows under the different alternate angles. Also, comparing the effect of two schemes for the domain discretization to use in the solution variables’ gradients on simulation results are investigated. The secondary flow causes to increase in the numbers of multi-longitudinal vortices (MLV) by changing the angle of pitches. These phenomena permit the cold fluid flow to stream in more paths from center to tube wall and better condition for mixing of fluids. Consequently, the heat transfer enhances by using the alternating oval tubes. However, forming the multi-longitudinal vortices cause an increase in pressure drop. Also, by raising the angle of pitches, the friction factor and the average of Nusselt number are amplified. It is also observed that the average heat transfer coefficient in the transition range is more than in the other areas. The mean Nussult numbers of this kind of tubes in the angles of 40°, 60°, 80°, and 90° improved 7.77%, 14.6%, 16.93%, and 24.42%, respectively in comparison with the round tube. The performance evaluation criteria (PEC) for all alternating oval tubes under the constant inlet velocity boundary condition indicated that the highest value (PEC=1.09) had been obtained at the lowest Reynolds number (Re=10,000) in the alternating oval tube 90°.Fri, 26 Oct 2018 20:30:00 +0100Experimental study and numerical simulation of three dimensional two phase impinging jet flow ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_902_0.html
Hydrodynamic of a turbulent impinging jet on a flat plate has been studied experimentally and numerically. Experiments were conducted for the Reynolds number range of 72000 to 102000 and a fixed jet-to-plate dimensionless distance of H/d=3.5. Based on the experimental setup, a multi-phase numerical model was simulated to predict flow properties of impinging jets using two turbulent models. Mesh-independency of the numerical model was studied to ensure the preciseness of results. Numerical and experimental forces on the target plate were compared to examine performance of turbulent models and wall functions. As a result, the force obtained by the Reynolds stress turbulent model alongside with non-equilibrium wall function was in good agreement with the experiment. The correlation equations were obtained for predicting the water thickness over the target plate and impingement force versus Reynolds number. It was also indicated that the maximum shear stress on the target plate was located at radial dimensionless distance of r/d=0.75.Fri, 26 Oct 2018 20:30:00 +0100INCLINED LORENTZIAN FORCE EFFECT ON TANGENT HYPERBOLIC RADIATIVE SLIP FLOW IMBEDDED CARBON ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_900_0.html
The present paper focuses on numerical study for an inclined magneto-hydrodynamic effect on free convection flow of a tangent hyperbolic nanofluid embedded with Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) over a stretching surface taking velocity and thermal slip into account. Two types of nanoparticles are considered for the study; they are single and multi-walled nanotubes. The presentation of single-parameter group (Lie group) transformations reduces the independent variable number by one, and hence the partial differential governing equations with the supplementary atmospheres into an ordinary differential equation with the appropriate suitable conditions. The obtained ordinary differential equations are then numerically solved by employing fourth order Runge-Kutta technique along with shooting method. The effects of the various parameters governing the flow field are presented with the help of graphs. The investigation reveals that the non-Newtonian MWWCNTs Tangent hyperbolic nano-liquid reduces the friction near the stretching sheet contrasting SWCNTs. This combination can be used as a friction lessening agent/factor. Usage of CNTs shows an excellent performance in enhancing the thermal conductivity of the nanoliquid and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) has higher thermal conductivity than multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) even in the presence of radiative heat transfer and heat source. Comparison with existing results available in literature is made and had an excellent coincidence with our numerical method.Fri, 26 Oct 2018 20:30:00 +0100Automatic implementation of a new recovery coefficient for Reliable contour milling
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_889_0.html
In contour milling, to render the machining process more automated with significant productivity without remaining material after machining, we have developed a new recovery coefficient, inserted in the computation of contour parallel tool paths, in order to fix the radial depth of cut in the way to ensure an optimized overlap area between the passes in the corners, without residuals. Thus, this parameter, which has been earlier inserted by the user, is now being independent and is implemented automatically from the input data of the contour shape of the pocket. In order to prove the effectiveness of our approach, we also performed a detailed comparison with the classical methods found in the literature. From the results we can see clearly that our new method removes the residuals efficiently in an automatic way and minimizes the toolpath length respect to the other methods. Furthermore, this proposed approach can easily work on the actual machine tool.Sun, 21 Oct 2018 20:30:00 +0100Analytical Study of nano-bioconvective flow in a horizontal channel Using Adomian Decomposition ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_883_0.html
In this paper, the convective flow of a nano-fluid in a horizontal channel has been investigated. The Non-Linear model that characterizes the flow of the considered nano-fluid is the one proposed by Nield and Kuznetsov. The partial differential equations of the dynamics, the thermal, the concentration of the nanoparticles and diffusion (velocity, temperature, nanoparticle volume fraction and density of motile microorganisms) resulting from mathematical modeling are reduced to non-linear differential equations. The latter are solved numerically and analytically by the Runge-Kutta method of order 4 (RK4) based shooting method (Tir) and the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) respectively. In this work, special attention was paid to the effects of the physicals parameters (𝛿𝜃,δ_,s and Nt⁄Nb parameters) on the velocity distributions, temperature, nanoparticle volume fraction and the density of motile microorganisms. The comparison of ADM results with numerical based shooting method solution also shows the validity of the analytical the Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM).Sat, 20 Oct 2018 20:30:00 +0100Application of Combined Mathematical modeling/Optimization Methods Coupled Pitch Controller in ...
http://jcarme.sru.ac.ir/article_832_0.html
A common method utilized in wind turbines is pitch angle control whereby via varying the angle of wind turbine blades around their own axis, power generated at high speeds of wind is held around maximum amount and is kept away from the severe mechanical stress on wind turbine. In current study, in order to control pitch angle, a control method based on using PI controller is suggested. Therefore, gains of the PI controller are regulated through combining the Firefly evolutionary algorithm and MLP neural network in such a way that the controller at its output sends a suitable controlling signal to the pitch actuator to set the pitch angle and so by varying the blades pitch angle suitably at high speeds of wind, the produced generator power remains around its nominal value. A wind turbine 5MW made by NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) has been utilized based on FAST software code to simulate and analyze the results. The simulation results show that proposed method has a good performance.Tue, 11 Sep 2018 19:30:00 +0100