Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Enghelab Eslami, Tehran Branch, Technical and Vocational University (TVU), Tehran, Iran

3 Department of mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

Abstract

Aluminum alloys are considered a lot in the automotive and aerospace industry because of their high strength to weight ratio. In this manuscript, the gas forming process of aluminum AA6063 tubes at high temperatures up to 500°C is investigated, through experimental and numerical tests. Therefore, an experimental setup is prepared and so, tube specimens are formed in a die with square cross section. Finite element simulation of the hot gas forming process is carried out to investigate the effects of process parameters including time period of forming process, temperature, and loading path. Uniaxial tensile tests under various temperatures and strain rates is performed, in order to obtain flow stress curves of the material. Corner radius and thickness distribution of tubular formed parts is investigated. The results show smaller corner radii could be formed at higher temperatures, whereas lower forming pressure is necessary. Increasing the time period of the process enhances the corners of the specimens to be formed. In addition, the maximum of formability is obtained when the gas pressure increases rapidly at the beginning of the process. However, the increasing rate of gas pressure must be reduced to form a smaller corner radius.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Main Subjects

[1]   Z. B. He, B. G. Teng, C. Y. Che, Z. B. Wang, K. L. Zhengl, and S. J. Yuan, “Mechanical properties and formability of TA2 extruded tube for hot metal gas forming at elevated temperature”, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 479-484, (2012).

 

[2]   J. Jeswiet, M. Geiger, U. Engel, M. Kleiner, M. Schikorra, and Joost Duflou, R. Neugebauer, P. Bariani, and S. Bruschi, “Metal forming progress since 2000”, CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, Vol.1, No. 1, pp. 2-17, (2008).

 

[3]   S. Novotny, and M. Geiger, “Process design for hydroforming of lightweight metal sheets at elevated temperatures”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 138, No. 1-3, pp. 594-599, (2003).

 

[4]   Z.B. HE, X. B. FAN, S. Fei, K. L. ZHENG, Z. B. WANG, and S.J. YUAN, “Formability and microstructure of AA6061 Al alloy tube for hot metal gas forming at elevated temperature”, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 364-369, (2012).

 

[5]   M. Keigler, H. Bauer, D. Harrison, and A. K. De Silva, “Enhancing the formability of aluminium components via temperature controlled hydroforming”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 167, No. 2-3, pp. 363-370, (2005).

 

[6]   H. Yi, E. Pavlina, C. Van Tyne, and Y. Moon, “Application of a combined heating system for the warm hydroforming of lightweight alloy tubes”, Journal of materials processing technology, Vol. 203, No. 1-3, (2008).

 

[7]   Z. He, S. Yuan, G. Liu, J. Wu, and W.Cha, “Formability testing of AZ31B magnesium alloy tube at elevated temperature”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 210, No. 6-7, pp.877-884, (2010).

 

[8]   S. J. Hashemi, H. M. Naeini, Gh. Liaghat, R. Azizi Tafti, and F. Rahmani, “Numerical and experimental investigation of temperature effect on thickness distribution in warm hydroforming of aluminum tubes”, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp.57-63, (2013).

 

[9]   B. J. Kim, C. J. Van Tyne, M. Y. Lee, and Y. H. Moon, “Finite element analysis and experimental confirmation of warm hydroforming process for aluminum alloy”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 187, No. 1, pp.296-299, (2007).

 

[10] S. J. hashemi, Prediction of Forming Limit Diagram in Warm Tube Hydroforming Using Ductile Fracture Criteria, PhD

 

[11] N. Abedrabbo, F. Pourboghrat, and J. Carsley, “Forming of AA5182-O and AA5754-O at elevated temperatures using coupled thermo-mechanical finite element models”, International Journal of Plasticity, Vol. 23, No. 5, pp. 841-875, (2007).

 

[12] H. Choi, M. Koc, and J. Ni, “A study on warm hydroforming of Al and Mg sheet materials: mechanism and proper temperature conditions”, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol. 130, No. 4, pp. 041007, (2008).

 

[13] T. Naka, G. Torikai, R. Hino, and F. Yoshida, “The effects of temperature and forming speed on the forming limit diagram for type 5083 aluminum–magnesium alloy sheet”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 113, No.1-3, pp.648-653, (2001).

 

[14] R. Verma, L. G. Hector, P. E. Krajewski, and E. M. Taleff, “The finite element simulation of high-temperature magnesium AZ31 sheet forming”, Jom, Vol. 61, No. 8, pp. 29-37, (2009).

 

[15] T. Maeno, K. I. Mori, and K. Fujimoto, “Hot gas bulging of sealed aluminium alloy tube using resistance heating”, Manufacturing Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp.1, (2014).

 

[16] T. Maeno, K. I. Mori, and C. Unou, “Improvement of die filling by prevention of temperature drop in gas forming of aluminium alloy tube using air filled into sealed tube and resistance heating”, Procedia Engineering, Vol. 81, No. 1, pp. 2237-2242, (2014).

 

[17] Y. Lee, J. J. Kim, Y. N. Kwon, and E. Y. Yoon, “Formability and Grain Size of AZ31 Sheet in Gas Blow Forming Process”, Procedia Engineering, Vol. 81, No.1, pp. 748-753, (2014).

 

[18] A. Paul and M. Strano, “The influence of process variables on the gas forming and press hardening of steel tubes”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 228, No. 1, pp. 160-169, (2015).

 

[19] Y. Wu, G. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Liu, and S. Yuan, “The deformation and microstructure of Ti-3Al-2.5 V tubular component for non-uniform temperature hot gas forming”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 88, No. 5-8, pp. 1-10, (2016).

 

[20] Y. Wu, G. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Liu, and S. Yuan, “Loading path and microstructure study of Ti-3Al-2.5 V tubular components within hot gas forming at 800°C”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 87, No. 5-8, pp. 1-11, (2016).

 

[21] W. J. Kim, W. Y. Kim, and H. K. Kim, “Hot-air forming of Al-Mg-Cr alloy and prediction of failure based on Zener-Holloman parameter”, Metals and Materials International, Vol. 16, No. 6, pp.895-903, (2010).

 

[22] X. Fan, Z. He, P. Lin, and S. Yuan, “Microstructure, texture and hardness of Al–Cu–Li alloy sheet during hot gas forming with integrated heat treatment”, Materials & Design, Vol. 94, No. 1, pp.449-456, (2016).

 

[23] K. Wang, G. Liu, J. Zhao, J. Wang, and S.Yuan, “Formability and microstructure evolution for hot gas forming of laser-welded TA15 titanium alloy tubes”, Materials & Design, Vol. 91, No. 1, pp.269-277, (2016).

 

[24] G. Wang, K.F. Zhang, D.Z. Wu, J.Z. Wang, and Y.D. Yu, “Superplastic forming of bellows expansion joints made of titanium alloys”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 178,No. 1-3, pp.24-28, (2006).

 

[25] R. Neugebauer and F. Schieck, “Active media-based form hardening of tubes and profiles”, Production Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp.385-390, (2010).

 

[26] G. Liu, J. Wang, K. Dang, and Z. Tang, “High pressure pneumatic forming of Ti-3Al-2.5 V titanium tubes in a square cross-sectional die”, Materials, Vol. 7, No. 8, pp.5992-6009, (2014).

 

[27] G. Liu, Y. Wu, D. Wang, and S. Yuan, “Effect of feeding length on deforming behavior of Ti-3Al-2.5 V tubular components prepared by tube gas forming at elevated temperature”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 81, No. 9-12, pp.1809-1816, (2015).

 

[28] T. Maeno, K. Mori, and C. Unou, “Optimisation of condition in hot gas bulging of aluminium alloy tube using resistance heating set into dies”, Key Engineering Materials,Vol. 473, No. 1, pp. 69-74, (2011).

 

[29] L. Vadillo, M. T. Santos, M. A. Gutierrez, I. Pérez, B. González, and V. Uthaisangsuk, “Simulation and experimental results of the hot metal gas forming technology for high strength steel and stainless steel tubes forming”, AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 908, No. 1, pp. 1199-1204, (2007).

 

[30] M. Rajaee, S. J. Hosseinipour, and H. Jamshidi Aval, “Tearing criterion and process window of hot metal gas forming for AA6063 cylindrical stepped tubes”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, (2018).

 

[31] Y. Wu, G. Liu, Z. Liu, and B. Wang, “Formability and microstructure of Ti22Al24. 5Nb0. 5Mo rolled sheet within hot gas bulging tests at constant equivalent strain rate”, Materials & Design, Vol. 108, No. 1, pp.298-307, (2016).

 

[32] A. T. Anaraki, , M. Loh-Mousavi, and L. L. Wang, , “Experimental and numerical investigation of the influence of pulsating pressure on hot tube gas forming using oscillating heating”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 97, No. 9-12, pp.1-10, (2018).

CAPTCHA Image