Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assistant Professor, Annamacharya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Rajampet, Andhra pradesh, India.

2 Professor & Dean R&D, Centurion University of Technology & Management, Parlakhemundi, Odisha, India

3 Professor & Director, Department of mechanical Engg., S.V. College of Engineering, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh


Electro Discharge Machining (EDM) is incredibly recognizable machining for ticklishness profiles in "difficult to machine" materials. In EDM, the material ejection of the cathode is cultivated through exact controlled electric pulse (the flash), which changes the metals of two terminals into dissolve and vaporize, and because of the breakdown of the dielectric medium. The most commonly used dielectric media are kerosene, paraffin, glycerin, transformer oil, EDM oil .all these are derived from petroleum. these dielectric media undergo pyrolysis and carbon soot formation is deposited on work electrode, and sometimes carbon precipitates into work. To overcome these effects vegetable oils are tried as alternate dielectric media. Pongamia Pinnetta is abundantly available in most of the countries, it's cheaper and non-edible. Pongamia Pinnata (PP) oil is extracting from plant seeds, and that is blended with EDM oil and several experimentations are done to find the suitability. Operational variables with respect to input and output parameters are identified. some of these are best EWR, MRR, TWR, and SR with applied current (I), pulse on time (Ton), and pulse off time (Toff) are which are picked as the input process factors, because for industrial application many machinists are choosing these three are the input parameters and other is constant and pick under specific requirements only. After successful completion of this experimentations, Pongamia Pinnata oil blends are fit for the industrial application using TECHNIQUE OF ORDER PREFERANCING WITH SIMILAR TO IDEAL SOLUTION [TOPSIS], It is observed that no carbon soot formation in the work component with PP oil as the dielectric.

Graphical Abstract


Main Subjects

[1]  Chakraborty S, V. Dey, S.K. Ghosh “A review on the use of dielectric fluids and their effects in electrical discharge machining characteristics”. Precision Engineering (2014),


[2]  Fábio N Leao, Ian RPashby. “A review on the use of environmentally-friendly dielectric fluids in electrical discharge machining”. J Mater Process Technol 2004; 149: 341–6.


[3]  Kunieda M, Yoshida M. “Electrical discharge machining in gas”. Ann CIRP1997; 46:143–6.


[4]  Bobade S.N. and Khyade V.B. “Detail study on the Properties of Pongamia Pinnata (Karanja) for the Production of Biofuel”, Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, Vol. 2 (7), 16-20, July (2012), 16-20.


[5]  M. Dastagiri, P. Srinivasa Rao and P. Madar Valli, “Optimization of EDM process parameters by using heuristic approach”, Materials Today: Proceedings 5 (2018) 27036–27042.


[6] I. Fofana, "50 Years in Development of Insulating Liquids", IEEE Elect. Insul. Mag., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 13-25, September/ October 2013.


[7]  A. A. Pollitt. "Mineral Oils for Transformers and Switchgear", IEEE Elect. Insul. Mag. pp. 15-22, 13th May 1942.


[8] Z. H. Shah and Q. A. Tahir, "Dielectric Properties of Vegetable Oils", Jsr Journal of Scientific Researchs, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 481-492, 19th May 2011. 


[9]   A. A. Abdelmalik, J. C. Fothergill, and S. J. Dodd, "Electrical Conduction and Dielectric Breakdown Characteristics of Alkyl Ester Dielectric Fluids obtained from Palm Kernel Oil", IEEE Elect. Insul. Mag., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1623-1632, October 2012.


[10] M. Augusta G. Martins, "Vegetable oils an Alternative to Mineral Oil for Power Transformers-Experimental Study of Paper Aging in Vegetable Oil Versus Mineral Oil", IEEE Elect. Insul. Mag., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 7-13, November/December 2010.


[11] Dastagiri, M, P. Srinivasa Rao, and P. Madar Valli. "TOPSIS, GRA methods for parametric optimization on wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process." All India Manufacturing Technology, Design and Research Conference (AIMTDR–2016) College of Engineering-India. 2016., PP 497-504, ISBN: 978-93-86256-27-0.


[12] Govindan, P.; Joshi, S.S. (2012) “Analysis of micro-cracks on machined surfaces in dry electrical discharge machining”. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 14: 277–288.


[13] Ekmekci, B.; Elkoca, O.; Tekkaya, A.E.; Erden, A. (2005) “Residual stress state and hardness depth in electrical discharge machining: de-ionized water as dielectric liquid”. Machining Science and Technology, 9(1): 39–61.


[14] Dastagiri M, Kumar A H. “Experimental Investigation of EDM Parameters on Stainless Steel & En41b” [J]. Procedia Engineering, 2014, 97:1551–1564.


[15] Anish Kumar, Vinod Kumar, and Jatinder Kumar, “Microstructure Analysis And Material Transformation Of Pure Titanium And Tool Wear Surface After Wire Electric Discharge Machining Process” Machining Science and Technology, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 1091-0344 print/1532-2483 online.


[16] Kumar, A.; Kumar, V.; Kumar, J. (2013b) “Multi-response optimization of process parameters based on response surface methodology for pure titanium using WEDM process”. International Journal of Advance Manufacturing Technology, DOI: 10.1007/s00170-013-4861-9.


[17] Hascalik, A.; Caydas, U. (2007 a) “Electrical Discharge Machining of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)”. Applied Surface Science, 253: 9007–9016.


[18] Lee, S.H.; Li, X.P. (2003) “Study of the surface integrity of the machined work piece in the EDM of tungsten carbide”. Journal of Material Processing Technology, 139: 315–321.


[19] Teepu Sultan, Anish Kumar, and Rahul Dev Gupta, “Material Removal Rate, Electrode Wear Rate, and Surface Roughness Evaluation in Die Sinking EDM with Hollow Tool through Response Surface Methodology”, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, International Journal of Manufacturing Engineering, Volume 2014, Article ID 259129, 16 pages.


[20] Haron, C. H. C.; Jawaid, A. (2005) “The effect of machining on surface integrity of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4 V”. Journal of Material Processing Technology, 166: 188–192.


[21] Bradshaw GB, Menly WC; US Patent 2360844 (1944).


[22] Freedman B, Pryde EH, Mounts T L; “Variables affecting the yield of Fatty Esters from Transesterified Vegetable Oils”; J. Am Oil Chem Soc; 1984; 61 (10): 1638 – 43.


[23] Freeman B, Butterfield R. O. and Pryde E.H., “Transesterification Kinetics of Soybean Oil”, J. Am. Oilchem. Soc. 1986; 63:1375.


[24] Haas, M.J., Scott, K.M., Marmer, W.N. et al. “In situ Alkaline Transesterification: An Effective Methodfor the Production of Fatty Acid Esters from Vegetable Oils”, J Amer Oil Chem Soc (2004) 81: 83.


[25] Rizvi, Syed Asghar Husain, and Sanjay Agarwal. "An investigation on surface integrity in EDM process with a copper tungsten electrode.” Procedia CIRP 42 (2016): 612-617.


[26] Antar, Mohammad, "Surface integrity evaluation of modified EDM surface structure." Procedia Cirp 68 (2018): 308-312.


[27]  Younis, Mona A., "Effect of electrode material on electrical discharge machining of tool steel surface." Ain Shams Engineering Journal 6.3 (2015): 977-986.


[28] Khan, Md  Ashikur Rahman,  M.  M. Rahman, and Md Saifur Rahman. "Optimal set-up and surface finish characteristics in electrical discharge machining on Ti-5Al-2.5 Sn using graphite." Perspectives in Science 8 (2016): 440-443.


[29] Mascaraque-Ramirez, C., and P. Franco. "Experimental study of surface finish during electro-discharge machining of stainless steel." Procedia engineering 132 (2015): 679-685.


[30] Klocke, Fritz, et. al. "Investigations on surface integrity of heat treated 42CrMo4 (AISI 4140) processed by sinking EDM." Procedia CIRP 42 (2016): 580-585.