Document Type: Research Paper


1 30/4(D), Teachers' Quarters, BUET, Dhaka

2 Dept. of Mathematics, BUET, Dhaka



Photovoltaic (PV) module is one of the most useful, sustainable and non-harmful product in the field of renewable energy. It offers longer service period for least maintenance cost. The elements of PV are abrasive, easy for designing, and their structure like stand-alone technique give production from micro to mega-power level. A 3D numerical system of PV module has been build up and solved applying FEM technique based software COMSOL Multiphysics in this article. The average solar irradiation and optimum tilt angle for six divisions (Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulna, Barishal and Sylhet) in Bangladesh have been calculated. The effects of solar radiation, angle of inclination, ambient temperature, and partial shading on temperature of solar cell, electrical power and PV module's electrical efficiency have been investigated. It has been observed from the results that the greatest value of electrical power 15.14 W is found in Rajshahi for solar radiation 209 W/m2. The highest electrical efficiency is found as 12.85% in Sylhet at irradiation level of 189 W/m2. For every 1° increase of inclination angle, electrical power and electrical efficiency level devalue by 0.06 W and 0.05%, respectively. Results also show that the efficiency level is decreased from 14.66 to 11.32% due to partial shading area from 0 to 40%. PV module's electrical power and electrical efficiency reduce approximately 0.01 W and 0.01%, respectively due to every 1°C addition of solar cell temperature.

Graphical Abstract


Main Subjects

[1] M. Hosenuzzaman, N.A. Rahim, J. Selvaraj, A.B.M.A. Malek, A. Nahar, “Global prospects, progress, policies, and environmental impact of solar photovoltaic power generation’’, Renew.  And Sustain. Energy Rev., Vol.  41, pp. 284–297, (2015). 


[2] H. Hussein, G. Ahmad & H. El-Ghetany, "Performance evaluation of photovoltaic modules at different tilt angles and orientations”, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 45, No. 15, pp. 2441-2452, (2004). 


[3] HG. Teo, PS. Lee, MNA. Hawlader, "An active cooling system for photovoltaic modules", Appl. Energy, Vol. 90, No. 1, pp. 309-315, (2012). 


[4] M.M. Rahman, M.  Hasanuzzaman, N.A. Rahim, “Effects of various parameters on PV-module power and efficiency’’, Energy Convers. And Manage., Vol. 103, pp. 348–358, (2015). 


[5] H. Fayaz, N.A. Rahim, M. Hasanuzzaman, A. Rivai, R. Nasrin, "Numerical and outdoor real time experimental investigation of performance of PCM based PVT system", Solar Energy, Vol. 179, pp. 135-150, (2019). 


[6] H. Fayaz, N.A. Rahim, M. Hasanuzzaman, R. Nasrin, A. Rivai, "Numerical and experimental
investigation of the effect of operating conditions on performance of PVT and PVT-PCM", Renewable Energy, Vol. 143, pp. 827-841, (2019).


[7] R. Nasrin, M. Hasanuzzaman, N.A Rahim, "3D numerical study in a solar collector: effect of
Prandtl number", IET Digital Library, (2016), ISBN: 978-1-78561-238-1,

[8] R. Nasrin, M.A. Alim and M. Hasanuzzaman, "Assisted convective heat transfer and entropy
generation inside a tilted solar collector filled nanofluid", Journal of Naval Architectuire and
Marine Engineering
, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 135-150, (2016).


[9] R. Nasrin, M. Hasanuzzaman and N.A. Rahim, "Effect of nanofluids on heat transfer and cooling system of the photovoltaic/thermal performance", International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 1920-1946, (2019),


[10] R. Nasrin, M. Hasanuzzaman and N.A. Rahim, “Effect of high irradiation on photovoltaic power and energy,’’ Int. J. of Energy Research, Vol. 42, pp. 1115-1131, (2017). 


[11] R. Nasrin, M. Hasanuzzaman and N.A. Rahim, “Effect of high irradiation and cooling on power, energy and performance of PVT system”, Renewable energy, Vol. 116, pp. 552-569, (2018). 


[12] R. Nasrin, N.A. Rahim, H. Fayaz and M. Hasanuzzaman, “Water/MWCNT nanofluid based cooling system of PVT: Experimental and numerical research”, Renewable Energy, Vol. 121, pp. 286-300, (2018).


[13] H. Fayaz, R. Nasrin, N.A. Rahim, and M. Hasanuzzaman " Energy and exergy analysis of the PVT system: Effect of nanofluid flow rate", Solar Energy, 169, pp. 217-230, 2018. 


[14] R. Nasrin, S. Parvin  and M.A. Alim, "Prandtl number effect on assisted convective heat transfer through a solar collector", Applications and Applied Mathematics: An Int. J., Special Issue No. 2, pp. 22-36, (2016). 


[15] M.M. Rahman, M. Hasanuzzaman, N.A. Rahim, “Effects of operational conditions on the energy efficiency of photovoltaic modules operating in Malaysia’’, J. of Cleaner Prod., Vol. 143, pp. 912–924, (2017). 


[16] J. Cano, J.J. John, S. Tatapudi, G. Tamizhmani, “Effect of tilt angle on soiling of photovoltaic modules”, IEEE 40th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, (2014).


[17] M. Mehrtash, G. Quesada, Y. Dutil, & D. Rousse, “Performance evaluation of sun tracking photovoltaic systems in Canada”, 20th Annual International Conference on Mechanical Engineering-2012, Shiraz University, Shiraziran, (2012). ISME2012-2329


[18] H.A. Ali, H. Ahmad, H.A. Maitha and H. Hejase, , “Removal of air blown dust from photovoltaic arrays using forced air flow of return air from air conditioning systems”, International Conference on Renewable Energies for Developing Countries, (2012).


[19] R. Chedid, R. Tajeddine, F. Chaaban, and R. Ghajar, “Modeling and simulation of PV arrays under varying conditions”, 17th IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference, (2014).


[20] J. Ahmed and Z. Salam, “A critical evaluation on maximum power point tracking methods for partial shading in PV systems”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 47, pp. 933-953, (2015). 


[21] S. Moballegh and J. Jiang, “Partial shading modeling of photovoltaic system with experimental validations”, IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, (2011). 


[22] M.A. Al Mamun, M. Hasanuzzaman, J. Selveraj, “Experimental investigation of the effect of partial shading on photovoltaic performance’’, IET Renewable Power Generation, Vol. 11, No.7, pp. 912-921, (2017).


[23] A.J. Hanson, C.A.  Deline, S.M. MacAlpine, J.T. Stauth, and C.R.P. Sullivan, “Partial-shading assessment of photovoltaic installations via module-level monitoring”, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, Vol. 4(6), pp. 1618-1624, (2014).


[24] K.S. Parlak, “PV array reconfiguration method under partial shading conditions”, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 63, pp. 713-721, (2014). 


[25] R. Eke, and C. Demircan, “Shading effect on the energy rating of two identical PV systems on a building façade”, Solar Energy, Vol. 122, pp. 48-57, (2015). 


[26] R. Ramaprabha, and B.L. Mathur, “Impact of partial shading on solar PV module     containing series connected cells”, International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 7, pp. 56-60, (2009). 


[27] P. Dechaumphai, “Finite Element Method in Engineering”, 2nd edition, Chulalongkorn University Press, Bangkok, (1999).


[28] O.C. Zienkiewicz and R.L. Taylor, “The finite element method”, Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill, (1991).


[29] R. Nasrin, “A 3D numerical study of thermo-fluid characteristics of a flat plate solar collector using nanofluid", Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Mathematics, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh, (2015).


[30] S. Chowdhury, M. Al-Amin, and M. Ahmad, “Performance variation of building integrated photovoltaic application with tilt and azimuth angle in Bangladesh”, 7th International Conference on Electrical & Computer Engineering, (2012).


[31] A. Nahar, M.  Hasanuzzaman, N.A. Rahim, “Numerical and experimental investigation on the performance of a photovoltaic thermal collector with parallel plate flow channel under different operating conditions in Malaysia”, Solar Energy, Vol. 144, pp. 517–528, (2017). 


[32] M. Chandrasekar, S. Suresh, T. Senthilkumar, MG. Karthikeyan, “Passive cooling of standalone flat PV module with cotton wick structures”, Energy Conv. and Manag., Vol. 71, pp. 43-50, (2014). 


[33] H. Bahaidarah, A. Subhan, P. Gandhidasan, S. Rehman, “Performance evaluation of a PV (photovoltaic) module by back surface water cooling for hot climatic conditions”, Energy, Vol. 59, pp. 445-453, (2013).