Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of Electrical Engineering, Tehran, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, P.O.B. 16785136, Iran

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, P.O.B. 16785136, Iran


To maintain the stability trajectory of vehicles under critical driving conditions, anti lock-anti skid controllers, consisting of four anti-lock sub-controllers for each wheel and two anti-skid sub-controllers for left and right pair wheels have been separately designed. Wheel and body systems have been simulated with seven degrees of freedom to evaluate the proper functioning of controllers. Anti-lock controllers control brake torque through persistent monitoring of wheels velocity and acceleration and prevent them from locking up by cutting and releasing the brake fluid flow into wheel brake cylinder. On the other hand, anti-skid controllers have been designed in order to maintain the vehicle along a stable trajectory, calculated from the stable spin theory, and to monitor the vehicle’s trajectory during braking. This controller maintains the vehicle along the desirable trajectory by monitoring vehicle yaw angle and comparing it with the reference yaw angle, and also by adjusting the level of brake fluid input into each wheel’s caliper, and subsequently by adjusting brake torque. At the end of the current research, the use of yaw rate control input in place of yaw angle control input in anti-skid controllers has been suggested through a comparative analysis.

Graphical Abstract


Main Subjects

[1]     M. J. Gutnecht, D. R. Schniedewend, J. J. Moskwa,   C. R. kime and P. Romanathan, "Fault tolerance analysis of alternate automative brake system designs", SAE Technical paper, No. 930511, (1993).

[2]     R. H. Madison and H. E. Riordan, "Evolution of the sure track brake system", SAE Technical paper, No. 690213, (1969).

[3]     C. Orthwein , "Clutches and brackes design and selection" , Marcel Dekker Inc., chapter 12, (2004).

[4]    N. Patra and K. Datta, " Improved sliding mode controller for anti- lock braking system", In Proc. CALCON11, pp. 25-30, Kolkata, Nov., (2011).

[5]     A. Harifi, A. Aghagolzadeh, G. Alizadeh, M. Sadeghi, "Designing a sliding mode controller for slip control of antilock brake system", Transportation Research Part C, Vol. 16, pp. 731-741, (2008).

[6]     C. Edwards and S. spurgeon, “"Sliding mode control: Theory and applications", London, UK: Taylor and francis, (1998).

[7]     V. Utkin, Sliding modes in control and optimization, USA: Springer- Verlag, Berlin, (1992).

[8]     Y. Tang, X. Zhang, D. Zhang, G. Zhao and X. Guan, "Fractional order sliding mode controller design for antilock braking systems" Jornal of Neurocomputing, Vol. 111, pp. 122-130, (2013).

[9]      N. Patra and k. Datta , " Sliding mode controller for wheel–slip control of anti-lock braking system",  Proceedings of the Advanced Communication Control and Computing Technologies Conference,  pp. 385-391, Rourkela, India, 23-25 August, (2012).

[10]   P. Naderi, S. M. T. Bathaee and A. farhadi, "Driving/regeneration and stability enhancement for a four-wheel-drive hybrid vehicle", International Review of  Electrical Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 1, (2009)a.

[11]   P. Naderi, M. Mirsalim and S. M. T Bathaee, "Driving/regeneration and stability enhancement for a two-wheel-drive electric vehicle", International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 1, (2009)b.

[12]   P. Naderi , A. R. Naderipoar, M. Mirsalim and M. A. fard, "Intelligent braking system using fuzzy logic and sliding mode controller", Jornal of Control and Intelligent Systems, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 236-244, (2010).

[13]   P. Naderi and A. Farhadi, "Non-driven wheels application for intelligent multi-objective control of hibrid vehicles", International Journal of Robotics and Automation, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 185-197, (2012).

[14]   W. Xiany, P. C. Richardson, C. Zhao and  S. Mohammad, "Brake-by-wire control system design and analysis", IEE Transaction On Vehicular Technology, Vol. 57, No. 1, PP. 138-147, (2008).

[15]   P. Naderi and S. M. sharouni, "Intelligent braking system for stability enhancement of vehicle braking, using fuzzy logic controllers", International Jornal of Vehicle Safety, Vol. 6, No. 4, PP. 381-398, (2013).

[16]   V. C´irovic´and D. Aleksendric´, "Adaptive neuro-fuzzy wheel slip control", Jornal of Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 40, pp. 5197-5209, (2013).

[17]   R.-E. Precup, et al., "Nature-inspired optimal tuning of input membership functions of takagi-sugeno-kang fuzzy models for anti-lock braking systems", Appl. Soft Comput. J. (2014).

[18]   M. Wu and M. shih , "Simulated and experimental study of hydranlic anti-lock braking system using sliding mode PWM control" Jornal of Mechatronics,Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 331-351, (2001).

 [19]  S. Nasiri, B. Moaveni, G. Payganeh and M. Arefiyan "Modeling and analysis of the hydraulic antilock brake system of vehicle ", Jornal of Control, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 11-26, Fall (2012).

[20]   J. H. park, D. H. Kim and Y. J. Kim, "Anti-lock brake system control for buses based on fuzzy logic and a sliding-mode observer ", International Jornal of KSME, Vol. 15, No. 10, pp. 1398-1407, (2001).

[21]   H. Lin and Ch. Song, "Simulation of hydraulic      anti-lock braking  system control based on a co-simulation model by AME sim and simulink", Proceedings of TMEE Conference, pp. 775-778, Changchun, China, 16-18 December (2011).

[22]   M. Kato, T. Matsuto, K. Tanaka, H. Ishihara and   W. Hosoda, "Combination of anti-lock brake system (ABS) and combined brake system (CBS) for motorcycles", SAE. 960960, pp. 1284-129, (1996).

[23]   A. Strichland and K. Dagg, "ABS braking performance and steering input", SAE Special Publications, 980240, pp. 57-64, (1998).

[24]   F. M. Georg, F. G. Gerard and C. Yann, "Fuzzy logic continuous and quantizing control of an ABS braking system", SAE. 940830, pp. 1033-1042, (1994).

[25]   N. Miyasaki, M. Fukumoto, Y. Sogo and H. Tsukinoki, "Anti-lock brake system (M-ABS) based on the friction coefficient   between  the  wheel  and  the road surface", SAE special publications, 900207, pp.101-109, (1990).

[26]   C. Y. Lu and M. C. shih "Application of the pacejka magic formula tyre model on a study of a hydraulic anti-lock braking system for a light motorcycle", Vehicle System Dynamics,Vol. 6, No. 41,  pp. 431-448, (2004).

 [27]  M. Sugai, H. Yamaguchi, M. Miyashita, T. Umeno and K. Asano , "new control technique for maximizing braking force on anti- lock  braking system", Vehicle System Dynamics, No. 32, pp. 229-312, (1999).

[28]   Ch. K. Huang and M. Ch. Shih , "Design of a hydraulic anti–lock  braking system (ABS) for a motorcycle",  Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 5, No. 24, pp. 1141-1149, (2010).

[29]   B. Wang, et al., "a Robust wheel slip ratio control design combining hydraulic and regenerative braking systems for in-wheel-motors-driven electric vehicles", Journal of the Franklin Institute, (2014).

[30]   H. Mirzaeinejad, M. Mirzaei, "Optimization of nonlinear control strategy for anti-lock braking system with improvement of vehicle directional stability on  -split roads", Jornal of Transportation Research Part C, Vol. 46, pp. 1-15, (2014).