Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Urmia University of Technology, Urmia, Iran

2 Projects Engineering Department, Mapna Boiler & Equipment Engineering & Manufacturing Co., Karaj, Iran

Abstract

Warpage and shrinkage control are important factors in proving the quality of thin-wall parts in injection modeling process. In the present paper, grey relational analysis was used in order to optimize these two parameters in manufacturing plastic bush of articulated garden tractor. The material used in the plastic bush is Derlin 500. The input parameters in the process were selected according to their effect on shrinkage and warpage values, melt temperature, mold temperature, injection rate, injection pressure, and packing pressure. Then, the Taguchi method was applied to design the experiments, and through the use of Mold Flow software injection molding process was simulated based on these experiments and the input parameters. Based on the results obtained from the simulation, the input parameters were analyzed in three levels using grey relational analysis. Then, analysis of variance and confirmation tests were carried out on the output of grey relational analysis to predict the optimum values of the input parameters and to calculate the dimensional changes of the plastic bush. Gaining these values, the plastic bush sample was manufactured, and its 3D point cloud model was generated by a scanner. At the end, by generating 3D solid model of the plastic bush its dimensional features were studied. The comparison of the warpage and shrinkage values between grey relational analysis and 3D CAD model indicates the precision of the method in controlling and measuring these two parameters. 

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Main Subjects

[1]     M. C. Huang and C. C. Tai, “The Effective Factors in the Warpage Problem of an Injection-Molded Part with a Thin Shell Feature”, J. Mater. Process Technol., Vol. 110, No. 1, pp. 1-9, (2001).

[2]     S. J. Liao, D. Y. Chang, H. J. Chen, L. S. Tsou, J. R. Ho, H. T. Yau, W. H. Hsieh, James, T. Wang and Y. C. Su, “Optimal Process Conditions of Shrinkage and Warpage of Thin-Wall Parts”, Polymer Eng. Sci., Vol. 44, No. 5, pp. 917-928, (2004).

[3]     Y. K. Shen, H. W. Chien and Y. Lin, “Optimization of the Micro-Injection Molding Process Using Grey Relational Analysis and Mold Flow Analysis”, J. Reinforced Plastic Composite, Vol. 23, No. 17, pp. 1799-1814, (2004).

[4]     D. Kondayya, A. G. Krishna, “An Integrated Evolutionary Approach for Modeling and Optimization of CNC End Milling Process”, Int. J. Comp. Integrat. Manufact., Vol. 25, No. 25, pp. 1069-1084, (2012).

[5]     S. H. Tang, Y. J. Tan, S. M. Sapuan, S. Sulaiman, N. Ismail and R. Samin, “The Use of Taguchi Method in the Design of Plastic Injection Mold For Reducing Warpage”, J. Mater. Process Technol., Vol. 182, No. (1-3), pp. 418-426, (2007).

[6]     H. Oktem, T. Erzurumlu and I. Uzman, “Application of Taguchi Optimization Technique in Determining Plastic Injection Molding Process Parameters For a Thin-Shell Part”, Mater. Des.,Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 1271-1278, (2007).

[7]     M. Altan, “Reducing Shrinkage in Injection Moldings via the Taguchi, ANOVA and Neural Network Methods”, Mater. Des., Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 599-604, (2010).

[8]     G. Rajyalakshmi and P.V. Ramaiah, “Multiple Process Parameter Optimization of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining on Inconel 825 Using Taguchi Grey Relational Analysis”, Int. J. Adv. Manufact. Technol.,Vol. 69, No. 5, pp. 1249-1262, (2013).

[9]     R. Ramanujam, N. Muthukrishnan and R. Raju, “Optimization of Cutting Parameters for Turning Al-SiC (10p) MMC Using ANOVA and Grey Relational Analysis”, Int. J. Prec. Eng. Manufact., Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 651-656, (2011).

[10]   N. Beri, A. Kumar, S. Maheshwari and C. Sharma, “Optimization of Electrical Discharge Machining Process with Cu-W Powder Metallurgy Electrode Using Grey Relation Theory”, Int. J. Mach. Mater., Vol. 9, No. (1-2), pp. 103-115, (2011).

[11] K. Palanikumara, B. Lathab, V. S. Senthilkumarc and J. Paulo, “Analysis on Drilling of Glass Fiber–Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Composites Using Grey Relational Analysis”, Mater. Manufact. Process, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 297-305, (2012). ‘

[12]   A. Sharma and V. Yadava, “Optimization of Cut Quality Characteristics during Nd: YAG Laser Straight Cutting of Ni-Based Super alloy Thin Sheet Using Grey Relational Analysis with Entropy Measurement”, Mater. Manufact. Process, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 1522-1529, (2011).

[13]   U. Caudas and A. Hascalik, “Use of the Grey Relational Analysis to Determine Optimum Laser Cutting Parameters with Multi-Performance Characteristics”, Optics and laser Technol., Vol. 40, No. 7, pp. 987-994, (2008).

[14]   B. Acherjee, A. S. Kuar, S. Mitra and D. Misra, “Application of Grey-Based Taguchi Method for Simultaneous Optimization of Multiple Quality Characteristics in Laser Transmission Welding Process of Thermoplastics”, Int. J. Adv. Manufact. Technol., Vol. 56, No. 9, pp. 995-1006, (2011).

[15]   B. M. Gopalsamy, B. Mondal and S. Ghosh, “Optimization of Machining Parameters for Hard Machining: Grey Relational Theory Approach and ANOVA”, Int. J. Adv. Manufact. Technol., Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 1068-1086, (2009).

[16]   C. Y. Ho and Z. C. Lin, “Analysis and Application of Grey Relation and ANOVA in Chemical–Mechanical Polishing Process Parameters”, Int. J. Adv. Manufact. Technol.,Vol. 21, No. 1,  pp. 10-14, (2003).

[17]   S. Khalilpourazary, P. M. Kashtiban and N. Payam, “Optimization of Turning Operation of St37 Steel Using Grey Relational Analysis”, J. Comput. Appl. Res. Mech. Eng., Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 135-144, (2014).

[18]   M. Norhamidi, M. Nor, N. Hafiez, S. Ahmad, M. H. I. Ibrahim and M. R. Harun, “Multiple Performance Optimization    for    the    Best   Injection

Molding Process of Ti-6Al-4V Green Compact”, Appl. Mech. Mater., Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 2707-2711, (2011).

[19]   S.Datta, A.Bandyopadhyay and P. K. Pal, “Grey-based Taguchi Method for Optimization of Bead Geometry in Submerged Arc Bead-on-Plate Welding”, Int. J. Adv. Manufact. Technol., Vol. 39, No. 11, pp. 1136-1143, (2008). 

[20]   S. Khalilpourazary, R. Abdi Behnagh, R.A. Mahdavinejad and N. Payam, “Dissimilar Friction Stir Lap Welding of Al-Mg to CuZn34: Application of Grey Relational Analysis for Optimization of Process Parameters”, J. Comput. Appl. Res. in Mech. Eng., Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 81-88., (2014). 

CAPTCHA Image