Document Type : Review paper


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, De La Salle University (DLSU), Manila, Philippines

2 Mechanical Engineering Dept, De La Salle University (DLSU), Manila, Philippine

3 Manufacturing Engineering and Management Dept, De La Salle University (DLSU), Manila, Philippine

4 Electronics and Communications Engineering Dept, De La Salle University (DLSU), Manila, Philippine

5 Mathematics, Computer Science and Engineering Dept, Liverpool Hope University (LHU), Liverpool, England


Integrating robotic technologies into agricultural practices has witnessed significant strides, particularly in tomato harvesting. This review paper offers a comprehensive examination of robot arms' end effectors developed for the intricate task of harvesting tomatoes. Drawing insights from a diverse range of sources spanning Google Scholar, Scopus, IEEE Xplorer, and AnimoSearch, the study analyzes the trends, challenges, and future trajectories of employing robotic end effectors in the agricultural context. The investigation encompasses an in-depth exploration of various end-effector methodologies, including grippers, rotational mechanisms, scissor-type tools, and suction devices, elucidating their merits and prevalence in the current research literature. Focusing on the utilizations of end effectors in agricultural robotic harvesting systems, the review delves into fruit detachment methods, types of end tools designed explicitly for harvesting tomatoes, and the integration of sensors into end effectors for enhanced capabilities. The paper highlights the nuanced criteria involved in end effector design, emphasizing operational characteristics, technical features, and the need for adaptability to diverse fruit shapes. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the challenges faced by end effectors in tomato harvesting is presented, with proposed solutions and recommendations for future research. The discussion extends to the future trends in this evolving field, envisioning advancements in sensing technology, artificial intelligence integration, adaptability, autonomy, and sustainability. In conclusion, the synthesis of technological innovation and agricultural expertise holds promise for reshaping tomato harvesting, paving the way for more sustainable, efficient, and cost-effective farming practices.

Graphical Abstract

End effectors of the robotic arms for tomato harvesting: a comprehensive review.


Main Subjects